ANS 150 Exam 3 Domestication/Beef and Dairy Cattle Production

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Cultural and Biological
What are the two distinct processes of domestication?
resembles a form of genetic selection in that the parent animals (1st domesticated) becomes isolated from its wild population
Describe the biological process of domestication
genetic drift (active or passive)
What does biological process of domestication lead to?
involves changes in how the animal becomes included in the social structure of humans. what role does it play in its interactions with humans.
Describe the cultural process of domestication
Domestication is what type of relationship?
all conditions of permanent living-together of two different species
subordinate (submissive), dominant
Guest is _____ Host is_____
they both derive equal benefits without domination by one partner
What is perfect symbiosis?
FALSE! this is very very rare
True or False: Perfect symbiosis is very common
Dmitry Belyaev, a russian scientists
Who hypothesized tamability?
Wild Foxes
What animals did Belyaev experiment his hypothesis on?
--> initiated by humans --> unable to breed for behavioral traits
Before his idea of tamability, what did humans believe domestication to be?
20 generations
For how many generations did Belyaev test his hypothesis?
Class III: least domesticated, bite/flee when approached or stroked Class II: allow handling/pets, no emotion or friendly response Class I: friendly, approachable, wagging tails, whining Class IE: 'Domesticated Elite' eager to establish human contact, lick/sniff experimenters
Describe the four classes of domestication in Belyaev's foxes.
Blazed forehead, curled tail, floppy ears, piebald coat, curly/wavy hair, dwarf/giants
What are some of the phenotypic traits associated with domestication?
"higher order" genes
What is tamability controlled by?
increases it, animals see/hear later in life
How does domestication effect sight and hearing age?
Domestication Age
When the domestication of each species is thought to have begun.
There is a Direct Positive relationship
Is there a positive or negative relationship between a Species' domestication age and the frequency (%) of phenotypic traits associated with domestication (Belyaev) that they possess?
4500 B.C. (6000-6500 years ago)
When were cattle believed to have domesticated?
What were wild ancestors of cattle called?
Pockets through Eastern Europe, Northern Africa, and South Asia/ India. This tells us that people became more stationary and less nomadic.
Where did domestication of cattle begin and what does this tell you about the habits of human development?
Religion and Food
What were the two main reasons for original domestication?
European and Asian Explorers
Who brought cattle domestication to the Americas, New Zealand, and Australia?
What is the number of total beef operations in the United States?
89.9 Million
What is the total beef inventory in the United States?
$76.3 Billion
What is Gross income of beef cattle for the United States?
Texas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, South Dakota
What are the top producing states for number of beef cows?
Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, California, Oklahoma
What are the top producing states for market cattle sold?
NC is more about cow/calf production, so we sell smaller cows which means smaller income for the smaller weight sold.
Why isn't North Carolina a major beef market/production state?
Piedmont, foothills
Where in NC are beef cattle operations mostly located?
Urban Sprawl
What is causing a decline in the number of beef cattle operations?
Total beef operations: 18,413
What is NC's total beef operations?
Total beef inventory: 776, 271
What is NC's total beef inventory?
Gross Income: $275 million
What is NC's total gross income for beef cattle production?
Total operations of Market Share: 2%
What is the % of NC's total operations of market share in US?
Total inventory of market share: 0.9%
What is the % of NC's total inventory market share in US?
Gross income of market share: 0.4%
What is the % of NC's gross income of market share in US?
Mild winters, can grow both cool and warm season grasses for foraging.
What is an advantage of beef cattle production in NC?
social aggression and vocalizations
What are two types of behavior patterns?
pecking order
What does social aggression determine?
Swine waste management
Why has there been a large influx in cattle entering the southeastern part of NC?
Turn roughages into meat/usable products
What is an advantage to cattle?
'Bunt' occurs in what kind of cattle?
"Hook" occurs in what kind of cattle?
head down, ears back with surface pointed to the side
Describe a submissive cattle stance
feet underneath and head down, ears back inner surface down and back
Describe a dominant cattle stance
whoever retreats first is submissive and whoever wins more (NOT ALL) interactions
What determines if a cow is dominant/submissive?
"Mm" --> low amplitude, between cow and calf "mm(h)" --> higher amplitude, frustration (isolated) "(M)enh" --> very high amplitude sound given when animals are threatening or when calves are hungry
Describe the three main types of cattle vocalization.
Bos taurus
European breeds of cattle
Bos indicus
Zebu breeds of cattle
10-15 months
When do Bos taurus breeds reach puberty?
17-27 months
When do Bos indicus reach puberty?
minimum age and weight
What must be achieved for puberty to occur?
2 years old
When is the ideal first time calving age?
14-15 months
When do most operations usually breed heifers?
Don't want the bulls to get "over-used." The average ratio is 30/1
Why are cow/bull ratios important, and what is the average cow/bull ratio?
21 Days
How long is the Estrous Cycle?
12-18 hours
What is duration of estrus?
Cows ovulate AFTER estrus
Why is it good/beneficial to artificially inseminate cows?
True or False: Scrotal circumference of bulls is positively correlated to sperm production and serving capacity.
Prostaglandins and (synthetic) Progesterone
What are the two very effective types of products on the market for controlling estrus in beef cattle?
oral implant or intravaginally --> give for 14 days
What are ways to give cows progesterone and for how long should you give it?
14 days apart and it is given if estrus randomly starts showing.
How far apart are prostaglandin shots given and why is it given?
284 days (270-280 days)
What is the average length of gestation among beef cattle?
rectal palpation --> rump to crown -->estimate length to determine fetal age
How is pregnancy diagnosed?
Studies Reproduction
not enough nutrition can lead to low birth weights, which can lead to death. the most rapid growth occurs in the last 3 months.
What is the purpose of increasing nutrition in the last 3 months of gestation?
Calving difficultly
The umbilical chord could easily break, suffocating the calf.
Why is it dangerous for a calf to be in the backwards position?
You could potentially harm the calf or affect the mobility or nursing ability of the cow.
Why is it important to conduct the 3 tests before assisting in parturition?
Test 1: Pull on both legs, see if it can passthrough the pelvic cavity Test 2: can you pull out the first leg a hand-length away from the vulva Test 3: can you pull the second leg a hand-length away from the vulva
What are the three ways to test if it is okay to pull the calf?
Call a vet, the cow needs a c-section
What should you do if the calf is breached?
TRUE or FALSE: if a calf has its arms are head turned/in the wrong position, you can actually reach in and turn the arms or head
The first milk produced for 24 hours, has essential antibodies, lots of energy and nutrients.
What is colostrum?
What do young animals get passive immunity from?
It is cleaned, cut, and treated with an iodine solution.
What happens to the umbilical cord after parturition?
to transport the milk directly into the omasum and abomasum.
What is the purpose of the esophageal groove?
colostrum, clean/cut umbilical cord, vaccinations, castration
What are the important steps of caring for a calf?
Let mom and baby be.
Is it good to let the young be or be super attentive at all times?
7 months (205 days)
For how long do beef cows lactate?
To get one calf per year
What is the goal of rebreeding?
improving pasture quality or supplemental feeding
How can you achieve enhanced nutrition for beef cows through their lactational period?
When does rebreeding and part of gestation occur?
It is better to wait (preferably about 60 days after calving) because this increases the chances of having a viable pregnancy.
Is it better to breed right after calving or to wait and why?
A positive relationship
Calving to breeding interval and fertility have what kind of relationship?
It prevents the release of LH and FSH
What does the suckling action of the young do to the mother's gonadotropins?
The weaning weight
What determines the price of the calf?
At Weaning
When are calves sold?
--> Reproductive performance of cows --> Milk production of cows --> Mothering ability of cows
What factors influence the sale of calves at weaning?
They are put on grazing pastures
How do calves put on weight?
400-500 lbs
How much do cows weigh when they enter the backgrounding operation?
600 to 900 lbs
How much do cows weigh when they are sold?
--> Weaned 45 days prior to being sold or shipped --> Veterinary exam (vet health assessment) --> Vaccinations (and medications) --> Taught to eat from trough
What does it mean to be "pre-conditioned" before entering backgrounding?
frame score or size of cattle
What does final market weight depend on?
Hip height
What determines frame score?
Confined area usually not a pasture
They are handled more and associate better things with humans (milking every day rather than just touching them for vaccines for example)
Why are dairy COWS more friendly?
What is the total number of dairy operations?
9.2 million
What is the total dairy cow inventory?
$35.7 billion
What is the gross income of the US dairy industry?
True or False: The US is the largest cow dairy producer in the world?
California, Wisconsin, New York, Idaho, and Pennsylvania
What are the top dairy producing states?
It is increasing as more countries become developed.
Describe the general trend of world milk consumption
What is the general trend for milk consumption in the US?
Periphery of big cities because consumers what fresh products/short shelf life. (located in piedmont/mountains)
Where are most of of dairy cattle operations located and why?
How many total dairy cattle operations are in NC?
What is the total milk-cow inventory?
$184 million
What is the gross income in NC?
Total ops: 0.9% Total inventory: 0.5% Gross Income: 0.5%
What is the NC "market share" of US dairy industry? List total operations, inventory, and gross income.
Approximately 1/5 of NC dairy producers decided to stop production
What happened during the government buy-out program in the 1990s?
Urban Sprawl b/c the land increases in value
What is causing many farmers to sell their land? Why?
TRUE OR FALSE: milk production goes down with heat stress
Puberty, Gestation, Rebreeding, Care of mom/baby
What is similar/nearly identical between the dairy cattle management calendar and the beef cattle management calendar?
Breeding, Lactation, Weaning
What is different between the dairy and beef cattle management calendar?
2 years old
At what age is the ideal time for heifer's to calve for the first time?
artificial insemination
Which is more common in dairy cattle, artificial insemination or natural service?
--> desired traits, -->milk production is economically important and has high heritability so it is easy to make genetic improvement.
Why is AI more common in dairy cattle?
Estimated, how many dairy cows are bred artificially in the US?
FALSE, they can
TRUE OR FALSE: they cannot separate the X and Y chromosomes, so you cannot get the desired sex
305 days
How long is lactation in dairy cows?
Milk is the product of dairy cattle where beef cattle, they need to rebreed and produce cows to sell for meat.
Why is lactation prolonged in dairy cattle but not in beef cattle?
when lactation is terminated
What is "Drying Off"?
Mature, non-lactating
Are "Dry" cows mature or immature?
Differences in total milk production per cow are usually due more to an extension of peak production (65%) rather than an increase in amount during peak production (35%)
What are the differences in total milk production per cow often due more to; extension of peak production or an increased amount of milk during peak production?
So that there are always some cows in their peak lactation
Why are dairy cows typically managed in groups?
They have seasonal lactation schedules based on their wet and dry seasons.
What is different for the dairy cattle management schedule in Australia/New Zealand?
very high
Lactation requires a ______ level of management
at least twice, sometimes 3 times a day
How often are dairy cows milked?
Starting using computerized records in the late 80s-90s and this helps with efficiency and keeps the milk safely monitored.
When did they first start using computerized records for milking? Why is this beneficial?
in the "free-stall", since cows are milked twice a day they need to be observed and given energizing food
Where is supplemental grain offered and why?
a mixture of silage and corn, cottonseed hulls or other high energy feeds
What is concentrate?
TRUE OR FALSE: Milking systems must be monitored, checked, and inspected often
oscillations between positive and negative pressures
How does the milk-claw dispense the milk?
Physical trauma to the teat and mammary gland cause by prolonged exposure to improper pressure changes
What does over-milking lead to?
People can be allergic to the antibiotics in the milk
Why aren't antibiotics allowed in milk?
It is dumped! Unloaded into the tanker truck
What happens to the milk that tests positive for antibiotics?
Yes they are approved because they treat mastitis, foot and leg sores, and more.
Are antibiotics approved by the FDA for cows? What do antibiotics help treat in cows?
bovine somatotropin, a growth hormone that improves/increases milk production
What is BST and what does it do?
BST is a protein so it can be broken down just as any other protein or amino acid when consumed orally, but people do not want to buy milk with BST in it due to a misunderstanding. Consumers are unaware that all mammals produce growth hormones.
Describe why BST is safe for human consumption but consumers do not want it in their milk.
milk production has a high heritability ( ~ 0.3 to 0.4 %)
Why has the dairy industry made the best use of genetic selection for improved productivity than any other commodity (except the poultry industry)?
Dairy Herd Improvement Association
Converts records from cattle farmers into readily available and understandable information. Creates better efficiency (i.e. automatic ID scanners when milking)
What does the DHIA do?
at birth or shortly after (24-48 hours)
When are dairy calves weaned?
7-9 weeks, to socialize them but also prevent disease from spreading (biosecurity)
How long are calves kept in "calf hutches" and what is the purpose of this?
roughage, concentrate diet, with no milk
At 7-9 weeks of age, calves should be eating what?
So the milk can be sold for profit
What is the purpose of cutting off calves from milk very young?
9 weeks
At what age are calves regrouped and placed on a pasture?
6-8 years, their milk production and quality decreases as their get older
How long do cows typically stay in dairy production and why?
TRUE OR FALSE: it is important to continuously replace the older cows with younger cows before milk production/quality gets bad