# Science: LQ 1 Review

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Electromagnetic Waves
Electrical and Magnetic disturbance that moves through space at the speed of light. (They can travel through empty space)
Electromagnetic Spectrum
EM Waves are often classified by frequency in a schemem called _______
Frequency
The _____ of the wave produced is the number of complete vibrations per second.
frequency and speed
The wavelength of an EM wave depends on its_______.
frequency and wavelength
The waves differ in the way they are produced and interact with matter and from each other in their _____ and ______
Band
Each type of wave occupies a particular range of wavelengths known as _______
Photon
A throbbing pulse of electromagnetic radiation is called ______
Longest wavelengths and shortest frequencies in the EM Spectrum. Used to transmit radio and television signal.
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
Measure the time it takes a radio wave to travel from several satellites to the receiver, determining the distance to each satellite.
A type of radio wave that readily bends around builings and other objects that might be present in their path
Type of radio wave that has a shorter wavelength than the AM waves
A rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents that carry radio signals
Microwaves
They are basically extremely high frequency radio waves and have the shortest wavelengths. They have very short wavelengths ranging from approximately 1 millimeter to 30 centimeters.
Used to find the speed of an object by sending out radio waves and measuring the time it takes them to return.
Infrared
A picture that shows regions of different temperatures in the body.
Near Infrared Light
The closest in wavelength to the visible light
Far Infrared Light
Type of Infrared which is closer to the microwave region of the EM spectrum
Thermography/Pyrometry
Determining the temperature of objects
Visible Light
Portion of the EM spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Ultraviolet
EM radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than x-rays
This is produced by high-temperature surfaces, such as the sun.
X-rays
High-energy waves which have great penetrating power and are used extensively in medical applications and in inspecting welds.
Gamma Rays
Generated by radioactive atoms and in nuclear explosions, and are used in many medical applications.
Gamma Knife Surgery
A procedure wherein multiple concentrated beams of gamma rays are directed on the growth in order to kill cancerous cells.
Energy produced by nuclear reactions at the core of the sun
Can be defined as the process of emitting energy by any particles, such as in the case of high-energy, protons, neutrons, atoms, and ions, and waves, either light or sound,
Are composed of unstable atoms that give off its excess energy until it becomes stable
Happens during the spontaneous change of an atom to be more stable
An especially damaging form of radiation which can create electrically charged ions in the material it strikes
Ionization Process
Break apart atoms and molecules, causing severe damage in living organism
Sievert
Basic unit used to measure exposure to ionizing radiation
Millisieverts or microsieverts
Radiation exposure is expressed in _
1000 microsieverts
An average person is exposed to ___ of whole body exposure per year from all sources
Crest
What part is at number 1?
Wavelength
What part is at number 2
Trough
What part is at number 3?
Amplitude
What part is at number 4?
Transverse Wave
What kind of wave is this?
Waves
Disturbances in space and time, they cannot propagate without a medium and they cannot travel in a vacuum or empty space
Light Waves
Form of an EM Wave that is propagated perpendicular to the source of the energy. NOTE: They travel in a straight path
Refraction, Reflection and Absorption
Properties of Light
Refraction
It is the bending of light as it travels through one medium to another with different refractive indices
Refractive Index
Relative quantification of how a medium propagates a specific wavelength of light
Reflection
It is when light bounces off an object
Virtual, Upright and Reversed
An image formed on a plane mirror is _______
Incident Ray
Light striking the plane mirror
Angle of Incidence
An angle formed by the incident ray
Normal Vector
An imaginary line perpendicular to the surface of the plane mirror.
Reflected Rays
Formed when light strikes the surface of an object
Law of Reflection
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
Virtual Image
Image that apperas in a different location than its actual location
Newtonian Physics
There is no speed greater than light; thus, the indices of refraction of different materials are always greater than 1
Transmission
Refers to the process where light passes through an object or medium without being absorbed
Transmittance
Ratio between absorbed light and the incident light. it is unitless and it is used to examine how efficient a medium is in transmitting light.
Absoprtion
Occurs as light passes through a medium with the same natural frequency
Prism
Medium that diffracts light
ROYGBIV
The seven colors
Rainbow
A manifestation that indeed light is composed of seven colors
Spectrum
Components of ight with varying wavelengths
Light
It has both the properties of a wave.
Incident Ray
Beam in the first medium. It hits the boundary at an angel of incidence
Refracted Ray
Beam in the second medium. it leaves at an angle of refraction
Bends toward the normal
When light moves from air to water it _______. Making the angle of incidence greater than the angle of refraction
Slower
Light bending toward the normal indicates the speed is ____
Faster
Light bending away from the normal indicates the speed is _____.
Equal
The angle of incidence is ____ to the angle of refraction
Snell's Law
Describes the relationship between the angle or incidence and the angle of refraction. Ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant
Medium and the density
Degree to which light is bent depends on the ____ and the _____ of the medium.
Index of refraction
Light going from a vacuum into another medium is called _____
Medium
Speed of light is dependent on the properties of the _____
Optical density
Determines how much energy is absorbed and re-emitted in a medium and determines the speed of the light in the medium
Higher, slower
The ____ the optical density, the ____ the light wave.
Energy
Light wave is transporting _____
Reflected
When light hits a boundary. Some energy is transmitted to the new medium, some energy is _______
Diamonds
______ sparkle because most of the light rays hitting the stone are internally reflected
Fiber Optics
Transmit information in pulses of light. used in telecommunications, computer networking, by mechanics, and doctors.
n = sin (angle of incidence) / sin (angle of refraction)
Equation for Snell's Law:
Images
Are formed when light strikes a reflecting surface, such as mirror or a lens
Slows light progress
(The presence of material) Interactions with electrical properties of atoms will ____.
Real Image
Image is made from "real" light rays that converge at a real focal point. Can be projected onto a screen and it is always inverted.
Virtual image
"Not Real" because it cannot be projected, the Image only seems to be there.
Virtual
If light energy doesn't flow from the image, the image is _____
Curved Mirrors
Is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface.
Convex and Concave
2 Types of Curved Mirrors
Concave Mirrors
A type of mirror that curves inward and may form a real or virtual image
Convex Mirrors
A mirror that curves outward, reduces image and forms virtual images.
Index of refraction
The "light slowing factor" is called the _____.
Convex Lenses
Lens that converges. Thicker in the center than edges. Forms real images and virtual images depending on position of the object.
Near Sighted
Eyeball is too long and image focuses in front of the retina.
Near Sightedness
Concave lenses expand focal length
Far Sighted
Eyeball is too short so the image is focused behind the retina
Far Sightedness
Convex Lens shortens the focal length