branches of govt

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55 Terms
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principal representative body made up of house of reps and senate 535 members
house of representatives
435, based on population, 2 year term, must be 25 and citzen for 7, resident of the district
100 members, 2 per state, 6 year term, must be 30 and citzen for 9, resident of state, upper house, not all positions up for reelection at once
used as a "nuclear option" to keep vote from taking place, cant sit lean eat drink or leave chamber, hold the floor as long as you keep talking
determining how many seats each state has, occurs after every census
drawing district lines to benefit a political party, concentrate opposition(packing) and spread opposition (cracking)
individuals in office, most run for reelection and win
committee member
most of work done here with different kinds, servants of constituents, separate between house and senate
group with common interests or charactersitics, combined with house and senate
trustee voting
use their conscience
delegate voting
agents for those who elected them
partisan voting
allegiance to their party
politicos voting
combination of all other kinds of voting
judicial branch
they interpret and define law, hear individual cases and decide how the law should apply, their decision is law
where do the courts jurisdiction come from
article 3 of the const creates "one supreme court and inferior courts"
exclusice jurisdiction
only federal court has authority to hear case
concurrent jurisdiction
federal or state can hear case
original jurisdiction
the court that first hears the case
appellate jurisdiction
the court can only hear a case on an appeal
authority of a court to hear and try to decide a case
appointment of judges
president nominates someone to become a judge, senate majority vote confirms, judges serve for life
order to get case to supreme court
district to appeal to supreme or superior to state appeals to state supreme to supreme
judicial review
power to declare acts of government unconstitutional and eliminating them, comes from marbury v madison
marbury v madison
supreme court is og jurisdiction about judges, judiciary act of 1789 and marbury lawsuit are unconst, first time scotus calls an act of govt unconst
rule of 4
4 of the 9 supreme court justices want to hear a case then they will issue a writ of certorari
trial process for scotus
no evidence presented or witnesses questioned, one attorney from each side presents the argument and answer questions in 30 minutes, justices will write opinions on the case and then choose which one they agree with, majority opionin is final
dissenting opinion
written or signed by any justice who disagrees with the majority, can be used as the logic for future justices to overturn something
concurring opinion
written by a justice who agrees and their reasoning as to why
presidential requirements (formal)
must be 35, natural-born citizen, resided in US for 14 years, only serve for 2 terms
presidential requirements (informal)
white, male, protestant
national security president powers
commander in chief of the armed forces, make treaties with other nations (2/3 senate approved), nominate ambassadors, receive ambassasdors from other nations verifying their credentials to serve
legislative presidential powers
present state of the union to congress, recommend legislation to congress, call for emergency congress meeting, adjorn congress if they don't, veto legislation(can be overridden in congress with 2/3 in each house)
president can send a bill back to congress with his reasoning
pocket veto
president can let die by not signing it when Congress adjourns w/in 10 days of submitting a bill
line item veto
ability to veto parts of a bill, some state governors have it but not president
adminstrative presidential powers
take care that laws are faithfully executed, nominate officials as provided by congress and w/in the agreement of senate majority, request written opinions of adminstrative officials, fill adminstrative vacancies during congressional recesses
powers of the president
nominate federal judges who are then approved by senate, war powers act, cabinet, patronage, office of the management and budget, executive orders, grant reprives and pardons for federal offenses (not impeachment)
notable executive orders
emancipation proclamation, order 9066(japan internment), proclamation 4311(nixon pardon), order 7034(works progress admin), order 11130(warren commission), order 9981(desegregation of military), order 10730(integration of little rock HS)
shared war powers in const
congress can declare war and president can commit troops and equipment in conflicts
war powers resolution
intended to limit president use of military, requires president to consult with congress prior to using military force and w/draw forces after 60 days unless congress declares war or grants and extension
implied powers of president
executive office of the president, proposals sent to congress, executive privilege (Nixon damaged reputation of the pres.), inherent powers, power of the media, enemy combatant
vice president
just waits for things to do, power has grown more, recent presidents have given VP important jobs
the cabinet
presidential advisors, 14 secretaries and one attorney general confirmed by the senate
white house staff
cheif aids and staff for the president, some more for white house less president, rely on their info and effort but presidents set tone and style
first lady
not official government position, many get involved politically, recently they focus on a single issue
presidential succession
vice president, speaker of the house, pres protempore of the senate, secretary of state, secretary of treasury, secretary of defense, attorney general, secretary of interior, secretary of agriculture, secretary of commerce
informal presidental powers
executive agreements, morale building, agenda setting and public persuasion power, meeting with world leaders, crisis manager, building international coalitions, global leader
president and the press
president and media are often adversaries due to different goals, press conferences are best-known direct interaction of president and media, media doesnt focus on substance of policies but on the "body watch", new coverage of presidents has become more negative
presidential impeachment
gathering evidence and holding a trial to determine wrong doing, article 1 sections 2 and 3, articel 2 section4, article 3 section 1, house bring formal charges and accusations against the president, senate holds trial and judges, must be convicted bu 2/3 senate
andrew johnson impeachment
case against johnson was entirely political
bill clinton impeachment
charged with perjury and obstruction of justice and abuse of power, vote was passed in house along party lines, did not get 2/3 senate
donald trump impeachments
alleged to have sought foreign interferance in the upcoming 2020 election, alleged to have obstructed the investigation into ukraine allegations by ordering his staffers and govt. officials to ignore subpoenas for evidence and tesitmony, capitol building was stormed immediately following a rally and trump didn't exactly stop it and encouraged it was the most bipartisan impeachment vote in history
how many presidents have been impeached and who were they
3, andrew johnson, bill clinton, and donald trump
how many presidents have been impeached and removed
richard nixon impeachment
resigned before impeachment process began, would have surely been impeached if he didnt resign