Subtopics are highlighted, terms are bolded, and definitions are underlined :)
What are organic molecules?
Organic molecules contain carbon, and hydrogen bonds.
Carbon is the chemical backbone of the macromolecules found in your body.
Inorganic molecules don't contain carbon or hydrogen bonds.
The Major Biological Elements...
C - carbon
H - hydrogen
O - oxygen
N - nitrogen
P - phosphorus
S - sulfur
There are four major categories of organic molecules found in living things.
Carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
These are referred to as macromolecules because of their size.
Macromolecules - large molecules formed by the joining of small molecules
Monomer - a small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
Polymer - a long chain of small molecular units connected together
How do you make or break down a polymer?
Dehydration synthesis is the process used to build polymers.
Hydrolysis is the process used to break down a polymer.
No true monomer unit
C,H,O sometimes N,P
Amino Acid (A.A)
C,H,O,N sometimes S
What are carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are organic compounds made up of sugar.
C:H:O ratio = 1:2:1
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
Energy - all living organisms use carbohydrates as their main source of energy
Structural Support - plants, and animals with exoskeletons also use carbohydrates for structural purposes
Monosaccharides - simple sugars containing just one sugar unit, ex. glucose, fructose, and galactose
Monosaccharides are the main supply of energy for cellular work. The monosaccharides that aren't immediately by cells are usually incorporated into larger carbs or they are used to make fat molecules.
Disaccharides - consists of two sugar molecules connected together
In order to be used as energy, disaccharides must be broken down by hydrolysis into two monosaccharides.
Polysaccharides - long polymer chains made up of simple sugar monomers
There are four types of polysaccharides...
Starch - sugar storage molecules for plants
Glycogen - sugar storage molecules for animals, found in the muscles and liver
Cellulose - a structural building material for plant cell walls
Chitin - a structural building material for animal exoskeletons
What is a lipid?
Lipids are hydrophobic compounds, that don't dissolve in water, ex. fats, oils, steroids, waxes.
What are the functions of lipids?
Lipids are long-term energy storage and are the structural components of the cell membrane. Some act as hormones, which are chemical signals that trigger a response at the target cells. Lipids also help insulate the body.
Fat - consists of one glycerol, and three fatty acid tails
They are also called triglycerides. Fat is hydrophobic and used for long-term energy storage.
There are three different types of fat...
Saturated Fat - a fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the max number of hydrogen atoms, ex. butter
Unsaturated Fat - contains less than the max number of hydrogen atoms in one or more of its fatty acid chains, ex. corn oil, vegetable oil
Trans Fat - an unsaturated fatty acid which has the hydrogen atoms of the carbon double bonds on opposite sides of the double bond
Trans fat is formed during a process called partial hydrogenation and is considered to be the worse type of fat. It raises your bad cholesterol and lowers your good cholesterol.
Phospholipids - has a hydrophilic head group (made of phosphate and glycerol) and two hydrophobic tails (made of fatty acids)
What are the functions of phospholipids?
Phospholipids are the major component of cell membranes. They define the cell border.
Steroids - a category of lipid molecules in which the carbon skeleton forms four fused rings, hydrophobic
Cholesterol - an essential molecule found in the membranes that surround the cells, a precursor to bile, vitamin D, and steroid hormones
LDL - transport cholesterol from the liver to tissues that incorporate it into cell membranes
HDL - carries old cholesterol that has been discarded by cells back to the liver for recycling or excretion
What are the functions of nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information, includes genes which are instructions for building proteins.
Two types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA.
What are proteins?
Proteins are functional polymers composed of amino acids.
What are the functions of proteins?
Enzymatic Proteins - speed up chemical reactions
Transport Proteins - transport substances in and out of the cell
Structural Proteins - keratin and collagen
Hormonal Proteins - coordinate cell activities
Receptor Proteins - receive messages from other cells
Motor and Contractile Proteins - movement
Energy - only if necessary
Chemical Reactions and Enzymes:
Metabolism - the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down molecules
The two types are anabolism and catabolism.
Anabolism - builds up molecules, ex. dehydration synthesis
Catabolism - breaks down molecules, ex. hydrolysis
What are chemical reactions?
Chemical reactions breaking of old and formation of new chemical bonds that result in new substances.
Activation Energy - start-up energy for a reaction to occur and allows the reaction to occur faster than if enzymes weren't present
What are enzymes?
Enzymes increase the rate of reaction and speed up both anabolic and catabolic chemical reactions. They are specific, meaning their shape determines their function. They catalyze only one type of reaction and can be reused. Enzymes usually are made of proteins and end with the suffix -ase.
Substrate - the specific reactant acted upon by an enzyme
Active Site - the substrate fits into a particular site, where the reaction takes place
pH - describes how acidic or basic a solution is
The range goes from 0, most acidic to 14, most basic. The pH of 7 is neutral, neither acidic or basic.
Enzyme Inhibitor - a molecule that binds to an enzyme and reduces its activity level, ex. cyanide binds to the iron atom of the enzyme cytochrome