Historical & Contemporary illustration Final

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Final for Historical Illu

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Relief Carving
shallowly carved narrative sculpture
hierarchical scale
the importance of subjects is based on their size and/or position
stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide. Commemorative.
admiration for/imitation of the ideas, style or culture of classical Greek Civilization
rhythmic linear patterns of scrolling and interlacing lines in Islamic art: repetition shows the infinte nature of God
-triangular, stable compositions - first oil paintings and mathematical perspective - often comissioned by the church
Scientific revolution
Man is not so special -comparitive anatomy (man's anatomy is very similar to animals) - earth moves around the sun - isaac newton, laws of physics, & gravity
dark and scary. Reflects relgious tensions at the time. Catholic church in rome trying to reassert dominance after Protestant Reformation (Spanish Inquisition is happening)
cultural center is now France. Frivolous, fanciful, decorative, focus on leisure of aristocrats. Reaction to relgious agenda of baroque
reason and order valued above all else. Classical antiquity is seen as the height of civilization
Reaction to the frivolity of Rococo, aligned with the values of Enlightenment. -moral stories demonstrated the ethical "superiority" of antiquity -partly stimulated by the discovery of Roman ruins at Herculaneum and Pompeii
a chart, diagram, or geometric pattern that represents the universe
African Art
power, imagination, disregard for anatomy. Design > Realism
a sign or character representing a word or phrase, used in Mesoamerican art
Carpet Page
an illuminated manuscript page covered entirely in decoration
Persian Miniatures
islamic art that did not forbid the human figure
Gutenberg Press
Developed in 1440, dramatically sped up reproduction time for books; beginning of the end of Illuminated Manuscripts
Wood and Copperplate Engraving
main illustration technique for 500 years
Industrial revolution
Began in 1850 beginning of life is based on commerce, mass production, and materialism instead of spiritual & natural beauty
What movements prompted stylistic reactions?
Romanticism Realism Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Arts & crafts movement
What year did Japan open for trade?
Japan opens for trade
japanese woodblock prints, with flat, graphic depictions, open space, planar perspective, and high horizons, spread around the west -western cultural influence spreads through Japan
reaction to the industrial revolution; a longing for the days of antiquity. Mythological and legendary subject matter with particular regard for the hero and heroine: same time period as Neoclassical art, but very different stories and focus
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood
-dismissing the requirements of "fine" art that dominated since Raphael (Renaissance) -natural detail, every single leaf on a plant; photographic reference -full picture plane -Love Ophelia, tragic Romantic Stories
Arts & Crafts movement
believed that hand crafted objects were superior to those made by machine and that rural craftsman had a superior lifestyle to those who slaved in the urban mills and factories. Handmade > Mass-produced
Currier and Ives
Lithographic Print producing company that chronicled life in teh 19th century
Reading Industry
During Victorian Times, the decreasing cost of publishing and the increased capacity for travel via the invention fo tracks, engines, and the corresponding railway distribution created both a market for cheap popular literature, and the ability for it to be circulated on a large scale
Revolutionary War
documentation and political cartoons founded American published artworks
Ad Revenue
gave newspapers autonomy. Fewer socioeconomic barriers to publication
Penny Press
New printing technology dramatically sped up the printing process = increased newspaper circulation. Cheap, interesting literature = increased literacy = larger market
Hogarth's Act
Engraver's Copyright Act. 1735. The first copyright law to deal with visual works as well as the first to recognize the authorial rights of an individual artist
Special Correspondents
Civil War artists who mailed their work to publicatoins via special delivery. Worked for the two major newspapers: Harper's and Leslie's
Penny Dreadful
late 1800s; cheap popular serial horror stories. Precursor to pulp fiction
developed 3 stone lithographic process for poster printing in the 1880s could print every color in the rainbow, and ushered the modern age of advertising by LARGE posters
Photomechanical reproduction
allowed illustration to be directly reproduced in print -Killed engraving and Opened the way for individual illustration styles
Art Nouveau
Art of ornament. APPLIED ART. -Organic lines, natural detail, almost no right angles, aoften vertical format -Coincides with the beginning of illustration in advertising and advent of posters
Gibson Girl
strong female character created by Charles Dana Gibson -set the bar for style in 1900. "Battle of Sexes" theme.
Howard Pyle
Father of american illustration. Founded the Brandywine School. -historical accuracy -illustrating "between the lines" -becoming fully immersed in the story
Brandywine School
artists colony and also a school of thought, adhering to the teachigns of Howard Pyle. This was the first dedicated school of illustration.
Red Rose Girls
Jessie Wilcox Smith, Violet Oakley, Elizabeth Shippen Green. -All students of Howard Pyle, and all successful female illustrators
Depicts the subject from multiple viewpoints. Cubism inspired diverse art movements
Emotional experience > physical reality. Reaction to Impressionism: Artist's expression of the world, instead of the world's impression on the artist
Father of Modern Advertising -Italian caricturist who begain designing posters near the end of Art Nouveau in 1901 - Created one simple image to immediatley capture the viewer's attention: Brand Identity
J.C. Leyendecker
Created the Arrow Collar man -Gibson Girl's counterpart = New England collegiate guy
Rose O'Neill
Invented Kewpies -first mass produced toy. Millionare
What are some important publications?
1. Good Housekeeping 2. Better homes and Gardens 3. Vogue 4. McCalls 5. Scribner's 6. Harper's Magazine 7. Ladies' Home Journal 8. Collier's 9. Cosmopolitan 10. Saturday Evening Post
World War 1 Propaganda
the biggest advertising campaign to date: -raising money (liberty bonds) -recruiting soldiers -boosting volunteer efforts -spurring production -provoking outrage at enemy
King Tut
tomb discovered, almost intact, 1922. Renews world interest in Ancient Egpyt. -Motifs from Egyptian art show up in Art Deco
Art Deco
geometric shapes, clear and precise lines, and strong structure -Power and speed = primary themes
Ashcan School
School of American Realism, led by Robert Henri. Art reflects the artist's own time and experience. Art = akin to journalism
aesthetic is set by theme (not artistic style) Theme = WWII
Who created the Four Freedoms?
Norman Rockwell, he cretaed the four freedoms as a fundraise and was inspired by an FDR speech
1950s Cooper Studios
Best illustration pool in the 1950s, 40 artists on staff, many artists with the same style workign under one roof -Theme: Gibson's battle of the sexes, relatinoship between men and women - Convention: woman's skin in lighter, female featured, male secondary/obscured -All gouache or acrylic = water mediums = faster, easier to make editorial changes
Famous Artists school
3- year, correspondence art course taught by the industry's best. SOI invention, but not affliated due to tax status
Mary Blair
Visual development for Disney; influenced by South American indigenous decoration
-Illustrators became "visual journalists" (different from Ashcan School) - assignments all over the world to draw upon and interpret firsthand experiences - Robert Weaver: sketches are notes. I make the drawings without colors, and later I simply bathe the picture in what I remember to be proper light
Enter photography. Exit, Illustrations as we know it
Who created Push pin studios
Milton Glaser and Seymore Chwast
1954: Push Pin Studios
-Design and illustration should not be limited to prevailing sentimental realism (Rockwellian) - worked in expressionistic ways to counter photography - Guiding reference in graphic design: book jackets, album covers, etc.
1967 San Francisco = meant to exclude outsiders. Lasted only a year -Illegible typefaces, vibrating colros, vintage illustrations, public domain images
Untrained artists are called Folk artists -childlike, very powerful graphic impact Highlights contrasts: -illustration vs photgraphy -hand vs computer
artists looked beyond reality to impart more, not less, truth
Neo Surrealism: Magritte's language ; the visual pun
-NYT Op-Ed page was the original high profile outlet -could be used to sell any product, depict any idea -has remained popular since 1960s
Brad Holland
illustrate the essence of underluing concept rather than specific passages
Magic Realism
convicingly blend fantasy and reality
FedEx connects illustrators to publishers across the continent
Photoshop & Internet; everything has a market
Social Media connects artists directly to their market
Children's illustration
Improvement vs. Imagination
a short story, usually with animals as characters, conveying a moral
Edmund Davis
Japanese woodblock process to publish children's books in color: Toy Books
Passed down through oral tradition
What are some well known fairy tale writers?
Charles Perrault: Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Red Riding hood, Blue Beard, Puss in boots Hans Christian Anderson: The Snow Queen, The Little mermaid, The princess and the pea, Thumbelina, the little matchgirl The Brothers Grimm
Mother Goose
The frontispiece of Perrault's original edition pictured an old woman telling stories to a group of children. French saying: Old Woman = Mother Goose
When was childhood seen as a space of protected innocence?
the Late 1800s
Emergence of Picture Books
illustrations were at least as important as text; artists are recognized
What were some stories written for children in the late 1800s?
-Alice's Adventure's in Wonderland -Little Women -Treasure Island -Adventures of Huckleberry Finn -Jungle Book -The Secret Garden _Tom Sawyer -Peter Pan
Major Purpose of U.S. Education
around 1900, the assimliation of immagrants
Inexpensive high quality illustrted books = tremendous growth in children's publishing
Deluxe gift book
illustrations printed on glossy paper and glued to blank pages -Edmund Dulac -Kay Neilsen -Arthur Rackham -Maxfield Parrish -N.C. Wyeth
Beatrix Potter
early 1900s -small cozy books designed so that very young children could comfortably hold them - Tale of Peter Rabbit was first privatley published by the author
Mid- 20th century
Cold War: the U.S. competition with the Soviet Union = suddenly,c ountry was afraid that the U.S> was falling behind and that education was to blame -began the effor tot make early readers that children might actually enjoy
Children's market is comparable to adult literature in its range and diversity of genres