BIO FINAL QUESTIONS (FLASHCARDS)
process by which a cell divides into 2 new cells
process of reproduction involving a single parent with offspring identical to the parent
type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
a substance in eukaryotic chromosomes that is made up of DNA and protein
threadlike structure of DNA and protein that contains genetic information
series of events in which the cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two daughter cells
period of cell cycle between cell divisions
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
division of the cytoplasm
the first phase of mitosis
region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach
one of two identical sisters part of a duplicated chromosome
organelle in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
the second phase of mitosis
fourth phase of mitosis
the third phase of mitosis
different forms of a gene
situations in which one allele for a gene is not completely dominant over another allele for that gene
ex. human skin color
have one allele for each gene
process by which gametes are produced
meiosis results in this formation
proteins around which the DNA is tightly coiled
DNA and a protein packed together
the tip of a chromosome
in DNA, the fit between thymine and adenine and the fit between cytosine and guanine
the process that copies a DNA molecule
a type of virus that infects bacteria
the process that can change a harmless bacterial strain into a disease-causing strain
a nucleic acid that contains uracil instead of thymine
a type of RNA that makes a copy of the DNA
the decoding of a mRNA message into a protein
the process that copies DNA and produces mRNA
a type of RNA that provides the structure and composition of the ribosome
a string of amino acids
the language of amino acids based on A,U,G,C in the form of codons
three consecutive bases that specify a single amino acid
each tRNA has three bases that base pairs to a codon
the decoding of an mRNA message into a protein
heritable change in genetic information
a type of mutation that only involves one or few nucleotides
a type of mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message
selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits in offspring
process by which organisms that are most suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully
how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment
study of past and present distribution of organisms
heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces
an organ that connects to the small intestine and is responsible for removing water from undigested material
a large muscular that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
fingerlike projections in the small intestine that allows for greater absorption of nutrients
a enzyme in the stomach that breaks proteins into smaller polypeptide fragments
membrane around the heart
vessels which carry blood away from heart
vessels which carry blood into the heart
the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood
the only vein in the body rich in oxygen
the lower chambers of the heart that pump blood out of the heart
thick wall that divides the heart into two sides
the only artery in the body rich in carbon dioxide
a major artery which carries blood out of the left ventricle
tiny blood vessels with walls that are only one cell thick
the flow of blood between the heart and the rest of the body
Why is genetic variation important in helping a species survive?
If the environment changes, some members of the species will probably have adaptations that enable them to survive and reproduce.
Camouflage, mimicry, and behavior are all adaptations that support the idea of survival of the fittest
Populations within ecosystems interact in many ways. Some of these interactions affect the evolution of a population. Which ecological interaction is required for natural selection to act on a population?
Cheetahs capture prey by outrunning them over short distances. Over time, the fastest cheetahs have been more likely to survive and pass this characteristic to their offspring. This is an example of natural selection
When reproductive isolation prevents members of two populations from interbreeding and producing offspring, thus separating their gene pools, what process can occur?
Three similar species live together in an ecosystem. All three compete for resources. Which species will have the highest fitness and may evolve into a new species?
the species that has the most differences with the others
Fungi are different from plants primarily because they are heterotrophic
Which of the following kinds of evidence might indicate that a mass extinction had taken place?
A lower rock layer on a cliff has a wide variety of fossils, but the rocks directly above this layer have few kinds of fossils.
The process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other over time is called coevolution
Muscle cells contain a large number of mitochondria because they need a great amount of energy to contract.
Cellular respiration is called an aerobic process because it requires oxygen
What is the basic structure of a virus?
DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat
Which statement about members of the domain Archaea is true?
They can withstand more extreme environments than other organisms.
What is the relationship between mutualists?
Each organism benefits in some way
A heavy rainstorm washed fertilizer from a farm field into a pond causing an algal bloom. Which is the BEST explanation for this event?
The amount of fertilizer in the runoff was excessive.
What evidence suggests that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants?
Cells of fungi have chitin
An autotroph is an organism that can make its own food.
How do most fungi reproduce?
either sexual or asexual reproduction
Guard cells respond to conditions in the environment to regulate stomata to prevent an excessive amount of water loss
Which of the following changes would most likely reduce the rate of photosynthesis?
reducing a plant's light exposure
A gardener pinches off the apical meristem, or tip, from an herb plant. How will the plant respond to this stimulus?
It will branch more, becoming bushier
During pollination in seed plants, pollen grains are carried to female reproductive structures by wind or animals
As an adaptation to its environment, a cactus has leaves reduced to thin, sharp spines
Which of the following describes an organ system within an organism?
a number of organs that interact to maintain homeostasis
What statement about the earliest chordates is most likely true?
they were aquatic
A species that undergoes adaptive radiation will evolve into several different forms with a variety of lifestyles
Which of the following is an example of predation?
A lion hunts and eats a zebra.
In what way are herbivores and carnivores alike?
They both obtain energy by consuming other organisms
An important part of maintaining homeostasis is regulating the amount of water released or absorbed by the body. Which two systems mainly work together to perform this function?
digestive and excretory
Which body system is directly responsible for protecting an animal from disease?
What is a role that the liver plays in maintaining homeostasis in the body?
It regulates the amount of glucose in the blood