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psych unit 3 disorders

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neurotic and psychotic disorders

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neurotic disorder
mental illness characterized by abnormal thoughts, emotions and/or behaviour that **pose challenges** to daily living but do **NOT** prevent the individual from coping with daily life and functioning
psychotic disorder
severe mental disorders in which a person experiences a **break from reality** and is **unable** to lead a normal life and cope socially, emotionally, academically, or in daily living **without** treatment.
phobias
anxiety about a certain object, activity, or situation neurotic because they may cause high levels of anxiety and tension but do not interfere with daily living
phobia symptoms
elevated heart rate, sweaty palms, feelings of anxiousness or fear
phobia treatment
exposure/ shock therapy - gradually confronting the fear relaxation techniques - deep breathing or meditation counter conditioning - creating a new response to fear
panic attacks
sudden episodes of intense fear
symptoms of panic attacks
high levels of stress and fear, heart palpitations, shaking shortness of breath, numbness, may black out, suffer heart trauma
treatment of panic attacks
cognitive therapy - identifies triggers, helps patient learn to cope behaviour therapy - facing your fear to debunk it bio-medical - drugs and medications, an be addictive, temporary fix
PTSD
a type of anxiety disorder whereby a person relives a traumatic event through recurrent episodes
symptoms of PTSD
general symptoms; severe anxiety, difficulty breathing or focusing, blurred vision specific symptoms; intrusive memories, avoidance, negative changes in thinking and mood, changes in physical and emotional reaction
treatment for PTSD
cognitive behavioural or processing therapy exposure therapy - imagine the event in detail, repeat until stress is reduced virtual therapy - new treatment, enter a 3d simulation of the event while talking with a psychiatrist
obsessive compulsive disorder
a neurotic mental health disorder characterized by a repeated cycle of obsessions and compulsions
obsessions
unwanted, intrusive thoughts, images, impulses, and/or urges that trigger intensely distressing feelings
compulsions
uncontrollable behaviours an individual engages in to calm and dispel the obsession
treatment for OCD
more difficult to treat biomedical - prescription meds to activate serotonin cognitive behavioural therapy expose patient to triggers to reduce their compulsions
manic depression
psychoses, a mood disorder characterized by two polarizing dispositions; extreme highs the manic episode, extreme lows the depression episode
bipolar 1
at least one manic episode and sometimes a depressive severe mania and often depression
bipolar 2
multiple depressive episodes involves hypomania
symptoms of depression episodes
feelings of hopelessness, despair, gloom, insomnia, inability to master the environment, eating disorder extreme fatigue, sadness, personal guilt, irritability, anxiety
symptoms of manic episodes
Excessive euphoria, happiness, optimism   Inflated self-esteem   Hyperactivity and spontaneity   Lack of sleep (even days)   Rapid speech and tangent discussions.   Likely engagement in risky behaviour
biomedical treatment for BPD
anti depressants can stabilize emotional state and reduce symptoms does not resolve the cause, risk of addiction
therapeutic treatment for BPD
psychoanalytic or CBT - prolong a period of normalcy routine management - establish and maintain a regular routine
schizophrenia
least common but most serious psychoses, involves a breakdown in perception and thought process
positive symptoms of schizophrenia
presence of symptoms, indicative of losing touch with reality, hallucinations, delusions, movement disruptions
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
things that stop happening, flat effect, reduced feeling of pleasure and speaking, difficulty beginning or sustaining activities
cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia
subtle severe changes to memory, poor executive functioning, trouble focusing, problems with working memory
treatment for schizophrenia
antipsychotics - medications psychosocial - meeting with a doctor to develop coping skills coordinated specialty care - meds, psychosocial therapies, family involvement
paranoid schizophrenia
hallucinations and delusions, feelings of persecution conspiracy suspicion lack of trust and grandeur, most common form of schizophrenia
hebephrenic schizophrenia

disorganization of cognitive process, disorganized emotion, impairment in communication, daily routine can be lost, appears emotionally unstable or giddy

catatonic schizophrenia
significant impairment in physical movement motionless stupor, hyperactivity, a wavy flexibility, parrot behaviour
undifferentiated schizophrenia
symptoms are not prominent enough to be classified into one form also known as mixed clinical syndrome  symptoms may fluctuate and change over time
residual schizophrenia
lessening of symptoms, when the patient no longer displays prominent symptoms  Linger symptoms **may remain** Periods of new active-phase psychosis that continue throughout the remainder of patients' lives.
anti social personality disorder
rare psychotic disorder known as sociopathy
symptoms of ASPD
pathological lying   taking pleasure in causing pain to others   lack of guilt or remorse over one’s actions   inability to feel empathy - most common in serial killers
treatment for ASPD
challenging to treat, biomedical; some prescription drugs can curb symptoms such as aggression; but do **NOT** remove the inclination to harm others