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AP Euro - Unit 3 Vocab

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82 Terms
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secular
Anything that is not religious in its character or purpose.
politiques
Term for those nobles and royal figures who supported religious toleration as a means of restoring domestic peace and strengthening the nation.
sovereignty
The power of a state to govern itself; supreme power or authority.
absolutism
A system of government where all power is in the hands of the ruler.
divine-right
A power or authority that is bestowed by God.
Bourbons
The family that held the throne of France from 1589 until the French Revolution.
Edict of Nantes
1598 royal decree issued by King Henry IV of France that granted religious toleration and control of 200 walled fortified cities to that nation's Protestant minority.
reign
Period of time during which a monarch rules.
duel
Formal combat with weapons between two people in front of witnesses.
Intendants
French royal governmental officials who took over roles once held by the French nobility.
bureaucracy
Non-elected governmental officials who keep the machinery of the state functioning.
Huguenots
French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin.
Treaty of Westphalia
1648 international agreement that ended the Thirty Years' War. The treaty marked a major defeat of the Habsburg dynasty and the rise of the Bourbon dynasty. It destroyed the Holy Roman Empire.
standing army
A full-time, professional military force composed of career soldiers and conscripts.
regency
A period of government when an appointed figure rules in the name of the monarch due the monarch's youth, illness, or incapacity.
Fronde
An uprising, led by French nobles, against the growth of absolutism in that nation. It was crushed by the government of Louis XIV.
L'etat c'est moi
Famous declaration by Louis XIV that sums up the role of the absolute monarch. It translates as "I am the state."
levy
A tax (n) or the authority to collect a tax (v).
aristocratic
Of or pertaining to the nobility.
Edict of Fontainebleau
1685 royal proclamation that ended religious freedoms for French Huguenots and led to the emigration of over 200,000 Protestants.
mercantilism
The dominant economic policy of the 1500s - 1750s, it was based on the formation of self-sufficient national economies. This was achieved by limiting imports through high tariffs, the development of national industries, and the acquisition of colonies. It emphasized the amassing of bullion.
tariff
A tax placed on imported goods to keep out foreign competition.
League of Augsburg
An alliance of nations who feared the growing power of Louis XIV's France. It was principally led by William of Orange (Netherlands) who went on to become William III (England).
legitimate
Something that is legally based; a child born to a married couple.
Treaty of Utrecht
1713 agreement that ended the War of Spanish Succession. The Bourbon King Phillip V was allowed to remain King of Spain but the treaty was a major defeat for France and Spain.
Gibraltar
Strategic region attached to the bottom of the Iberian Peninsula; it controls the passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
bullion
Precious metals (gold and silver) in bulk form, valued by weight.
Hohenzollern
The dynasty that ruled the German state of Prussia and later ruled the German Empire.
militaristic
An aggressive posture that glorifies the military.
Kaiser
Title held by the ruling monarch of Prussia and later Germany.
General War Commissariat
The Prussian political organization created to direct the affairs of the nation and supervise the bureaucracy.
Junkers
Term that historically refers to the nobility of Prussia.
Sultan
Title held by the ruling monarch of the Ottoman Empire.
Battle of Lepanto
Epic 1571 naval battle between the Ottoman Empire and Christian forces led by Spain that changed the balance of power in the Mediterranean Sea and began the gradual decline of the Ottomans.
Janissaries
Elite Ottoman military force, at first composed of Christian-born captives; it was the first standing army in the history of Europe.
"sick man of Euroe"
Nickname of the Ottoman Empire in the 1800's and early 1900's as it slowly declined as an European power.
Mongol Yoke
Term for the brutal 300 year period (1200's - 1400's) of Mongol feudal rule over Russia. It left strong Asian influences on Russian culture.
Tsar
Title held by the ruling monarch of Russia.
autocracy
A state governed by a single absolute monarch who holds all power; it is usually associated with Russia.
Boyar
Term that historically refers to the nobility of Russia.
serfs
One of the lower classes, they are rural, agricultural labor who are bound to the land.
Romanov
The dynasty that ruled the state of Russia.
Kremlin
Massive fortress / palace complex in the heart of Moscow that is the traditional center of the Russian government.
St. Petersburg
The city built in the early 1700's on the Baltic coast by Peter the Great as a new capital city of Russia. It was the capital until the Russian Revolution.
Sejm
The historic parliament of Poland. In the medieval period the Sejm held the veto power over actions of the government. It led to national paralysis.
constitutional monarchy
AKA limited monarchy. A form of government in which the monarch's powers are limited by law.
republic(an)
Any government that does not have a crowned monarch as head of state.
stadholder
Title held by the ruling official of a Dutch province, similar to a governor.
East Indies
Geographic region of Southeast Asia that includes Indonesia.
stock market
A business enterprise in which the stocks of different companies are bought, sold, and traded.
merchant marine
A country's shipping that is involved in trade, rather than military activities.
finished goods
Products that have been produced from raw materials, thus increasing their value.
commercial
A synonym for business.
joint-stock corporation
A business that sell shares to investors who then assume a percentage of risk for a proportional share of any profits.
Magna Carta
Historic 1215 document signed by King John of England that placed limits on the monarch's powers. It is a foundation of English freedom.
balanced polity
Term that refers to the division of governmental powers between the monarch and the Parliament.
Petition of Right (1628)
A document drafted by the Parliament that restricted the monarch's power in exchange for a payment of money. King Charles I signed the Petition, accepted the money, and then refused to honor his word.
arbitrary
Something that is done without good reason, randomly.
quartering
In law, quartering is when a government forces people to houses soldiers in their homes without any compensation.
martial law
This is a form of military control that is used to preserve order when a government feels threatened.
renege
To go against a previous agreement, to break a promise.
tyranny
Oppressive, unjust, cruel government.
Eleven Years of Tyranny (1629 - 1640)
Term that refers to the period during which King Charles I ruled England without Parliament. It culminated in the English Civil War.
Long Parliament (1640 - 1660)
Nickname for the Parliament that was seated in 1640 at the end of the Eleven Years' of Tyranny. The Long Parliament was hostile to King Charles I and met off and on for the next 20 years.
House of Lords
The "upper" house of the English Parliament. Lords is meant to be the voice of the nobility in the government.
House of Commons
The "lower" house of the English Parliament. The Commons is meant to represent the common people in the government.
Cavaliers
Nickname for supporters of Charles I during the English Civil War.
charismatic
Possessing a compelling charm that inspires devotion in others.
gentry
An English social class made up of wealthy, land-owning people who are lower than the nobility in status.
Roundheads
Nickname for opponents of King Charles I in the English Civil War.
New Model Army
A military force formed by opponents of the king during the English Civil War. Oliver Cromwell became the commander. Many Puritans served in the New Model Army.
regicide
Term for the killing of a ruling monarch.
English Commonwealth (1649 - 1660)
This is the only republic in English history. It was formed after the execution of Charles I and lasted until the restoration of Charles II in 1660.
Lord Protector
The title held bby Oliver Cromwell during his leadership of the Commonwealth. He refused to take the title of king.
Levellers
A radical English political movement favored voting rights for all men and even rights for women.
universal manhood suffrage
Political term that means that all adult men have the right to vote.
Rump Parliament
Following the decision to execute Charles I, many former supporters of the fight against the king turned against Cromwell and withdrew from the Parliament leaving only the most radical and Puritan elements. This radical group were nicknamed the "Rump."
Glorious Revolution (1688)
One of the most important political events in English history, the monarch, King James II, was removed from the throne and replaced by a new monarch chosen by the Parliament. It established the superiority of the Parliament over the monarch in England.
abdicate
The action of a monarch in surrendering their claim to the throne.
Act of Settlement (1701)
A law passed by the English Parliament to ensure that no Catholic could sit on the throne. It stated that if Queen Anne died with no surviving children, the throne would go to the German Hannover dynasty, Protestant cousins of the Stuarts. In 1714, George I was crowned the first Hannover monarch of England.
figurehead
Someone is supposedly the leader of a nation or organization, but who exercises no real authority.
Social Contract Theory
This is a political theory that government's power is given bby the people, not by God. There is an informal agreement between the people and the government.