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50 Terms
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Intersubjectivity (1)
Interchange of thoughts and feelings, both conscious and unconscious, between two persons or “subjects,” as facilitated by empathy.
Intersubjectivity (2)
Individuals ability to engage in a meaningful interaction with other people.
Intersubjectivity (3)
Defined as a unique relationship between two distinct subjects; enables an individual to establish strong relations with other people that allows one to be closer to them in different ways.
LEVELS OF HUMAN INTERACTION
1. Awareness of Others 2. Self as seen by Others 3. Self in Others
Awareness of Others
Individual gradually shifts his attention and awareness from himself towards other people
Self as seen by Others
An individual that has already been included in the society starts to gain a perspective of what others think about them as a person.
Self in Others
An individual has already found his place in the society wherein he can easily interact with the people around him because he can already recognize himself as one of them.
KINDS OF HUMAN INTERACTION
1. Empathy 2. Availability 3. Ethics of Care 4. Alienation or Ostracism
Empathy
Ability to recognize, understand and share the thoughts and feelings of another person.
Availability
Involves an individual reserving or saving a part of his time for the other people that he cares about
Ethics of Care
Involves an individual showing genuine care for others.
Alienation or Ostracism
Considered as the negative kind of human interaction; exclusion of an individual by general consent from common privileges or social acceptance.
THEORIES ON HUMAN INTERACTION
1. Ren (Human-heartedness) 2. I and Thou relation/ I and It relation 3. We relation
Ren (Human-heartedness)
-Confucius -Stresses order and harmony in the world; can be achieved through practical, concrete and perceptual ways. -Calls every man to love the other through actions, not through thoughts.
I and Thou relation (1)
-Martin Buber -Developed by Martin Buber that he discussed in is book ‘Ich und Du’ -Described humans as a “being-with-others” or “being-in-relation”
Believed that I cannot exist apart from Thou because.......
one cannot fully realize his essence without interacting with others
I and Thou Relation
Avoiding objection or seeing the other person as an object or a thing for the other’s personal gratification. For Buber, the interpersonal is signified by the “I-You relation” Buber conceives the human person in his/her wholeness, totality, concrete existence and relatedness to the world
I and It relation
Person to thing, subject to object that is merely experiencing and using; lacking directedness and mutuality
We Relation
-Developed by Karol Wojtyla or popularly known as Pope John Paul || -Explains why an individual has a natural inclination to be a part of a group or a society because through participating in the group one finds and understands his essence as a human being.
We Relation
Since man is a member of this community his experience with others gives him meaning and allows him to create meaning with others.
We Relation (2)
Through participation, the person is able to fulfill one's self. The human person is oriented toward relation and sharing in the communal life for the common good.
Dialogue
An interaction between persons that happens through speech or the use of words, expressions, and the body language; a means by which persons are able to share in each other's lives. This is not confined to words; actions, gestures and other expressions may be used to convey a person’s inner life.
Dialogue (2)
This is not confined to words; actions, gestures and other expressions may be used to convey a person’s inner life.
Authentic Dialogue
This cannot occur if an individual remains as a “prisoner of his thoughts.
Type of interaction that are not enough for authentic dialogue to occur?
So-called “knowledge-based” interactions, which can be described as discussion or ordinary conversation
FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTHENTIC DIALOGUE
1. Comprehensibility 2. Truth 3. Truthfulness 4. Rightness
Comprehensibility
Pertains to the use of ordinary language that both the speaker and the hearer are familiar with.
Truth
Refers to how true the uttered statements is in reference to objective facts.
Truthfulness
Pertains to the genuine intention of the speaker which is essential to gain the trust of the listener
Rightness
Pertains to the acceptable tone and the pitch of voice and expressions.
WHY DO WE NEED TO ENGAGE IN AN AUTHENTIC DIALOGUE? (1)
It helps us establish a stronger relationship with other people.
WHY DO WE NEED TO ENGAGE IN AN AUTHENTIC DIALOGUE? (2)
It helps us accept other people as they are even though they are different from us.
WHY DO WE NEED TO ENGAGE IN AN AUTHENTIC DIALOGUE? (3)
It help us develop our skills in socializing.
WHY DO WE NEED TO ENGAGE IN AN AUTHENTIC DIALOGUE? (4)
It helps us develop open-mindedness by accepting the fact that other people do not think and believe in the same things that we do.
WHY DO WE NEED TO ENGAGE IN AN AUTHENTIC DIALOGUE? (5)
It helps us achieve peace and harmony in the society by having mutual respect and understanding among the people in it.
HOW CAN PHILOSOPHY HELP YOU EVALUATE YOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS? (1)
Important values related to intersubjectivity include acceptance of differences and embracing diversity.
HOW CAN PHILOSOPHY HELP YOU EVALUATE YOUR RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS? (2)
The recognition of our shared humanity and dignity is what drives us to extend assistance and act with concern towards others, especially towards individuals or groups that experience hardships because of their condition.
Helen Keller (1)
-An American author, political activist, and the first deaf-blind person to earn a bachelor’s degree.
Hellen Keller (2)
Learned to hear people’s speech by feeling their lips with her hands.
Hellen Keller (3)
Spent her life giving speeches and writing books; at the age 22, she published a book entitled The Story of My Life
Nicholas James “Nick” Vujicic
-An Australian evangelist and motivational speaker who was born with phocomelia, a cognition in which a person is born with no arms or legs. - Founded Life Without Limbs, a non-profit organization.
Nicholas James “Nick” Vujicic (2)
- He was born with two small and deformed feet, and an operation enabled him to use his toes to grab and manipulate object. - He was bullied because of his condition; Graduated with a degree in commerce and went on to pursue a career as a motivational speaker and evangelist.
Roselle Ambubuyog (1)
First visually-impaired Filipino to graduate summa cum laude from Ateneo de Manila University; consistent academic honoree and valedictorian in both elementary and high school.
Roselle Ambubuyog (2)
Initiated Project Roselle together with the Rotary club of Makti-Ayala, and provide schools with software and equipment, such as computers and printer, that will aid blind students in their studies.
On Underprivileged Sectors, poverty is defined as?
Not one-dimensional; rather, it is multidimensional
Concepts and measures of poverty relate to its various dimensions:
- Income - Health - Education - Empowerment - Working Condition
One must extend help wholeheartedly, without reservation or a patronizing attitude.
We help those in need not because we need to feel better about ourselves, but we do it of an obligation or uphold the dignity of our fellow persons.
Mary Wollstonecraft
- Vindication on the Rights of Women - Argued that education would produce women who were me propagator of fools.
Women must learn to defend and nourish their dignity and self-respect;
Men’s worth should not be based on the vanity of women and babies for degrades women by making them mere dolls.
Mary Wollstonecraft (2)
Stated that women should not marry for support. Instead, they should earn their own “bread”