bio 2 chap 4

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195 Terms
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inorganic compounds
-do not usually contain carbon -H2, O, CO2, salts, bases(OH-), and inorganic acids
organic compounds
-contain carbon -almost always contains hydrogen --usually contain oxygen and nitrogen -may also contain phosphorus, sulfur, and small amounts of calcium, iron, sodium, chlorine, potassium
most abundant inorganic compound in body
water (60-80%)
absorbs and releases large amounts of heat before its temperature changes appreciably
high heat capacity
to evaporate, water requires large amounts of heat energy to disrupt the hydrogen bonds that hold water molecules together
high heat of vaporization
water molecules exhibit a (+) end or pole, and a (-) end or pole. gives water the ability to dissolve in many substances (universal solvent)
polar molecule
water is a __________ in many chemical reactions (hydrolysis & dehydration synthesis)
important reactant
water forms a cushion (due to hydrogen bonding) around certain body organs to protect them from physical trauma
to raise 1mL of water 1 degree C it takes _________
1 cal (1mL/1C=1 calorie)
blood is ________% water
lungs are _________% water
brain is _______% water
holds heat
latent heat affect
h20 sticks to anything else
water sticks to water
-inorganic -ionic compounds consisting of cations other than H+ and anions other than [OH-] -most abundant- contains Ca++ & PO4^3- -Na+,K+ important for nerve impulses -Fe^3+ forms part of hemoglobin
molecule that transports oxygen within red blood cells
substances that conduct electrical current while in solution
all salts are __________
+ ion
- ion
surrounds fetus within mother's body and plays role in protecting fetus
amniotic fluid
Fe has affinity for ____________ and _________
carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
-yield H+ in water -sour taste -proton donors
-yield OH- in water -bitter -proton acceptors
when acids and bases are mixed and chemically react to for a salt and water
what is the pH of alkaline/essential water?
H donates an electron
"naked proton"
the relative concentration of hydrogen/hydroxide ions in a solution
pH scale
-used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions - 0-14 - low pH = high hydrogen ion concentration
characteristics of carbon
-electroneutral (always shares electrons) - 4 valence shell electrons (bonds are equal) -can form chainlike molecules and ring structures (can be suited for specific roles, endless possibilities)
those organic compounds made in the bodies of living things
biosynthetic organic compounds
types of biosynthetic organic compounds
-carbohydrates -lipids -proteins -nucleic acids
carbohydrates makeup
-C, H, O -no other elements -C:H:O ratio = 1:2:1
carbohydrates formula
-Cn(H2O)n -are water containing carbon compounds
types of carbohydrates
-monosaccharides -ogliosaccharides -polysaccharides
-simple sugar -value of n is between 3 and 7 -3 common (glucose, fructose, galactose)
main sugar metabolized(broken down) by the body and used for energy
glucose (aka dextrose)
sugar which upon consumption is converted to glucose by the liver
fructose (fruit sugar)
not normally found in nature, but combines with glucose to form lactose( milk sugar)
empirical formula of glucose
-short chain of carbohydrates (2-10 monosaccharides) -linked by covalent bonding -broken down by digestion into simple sugars -combination of 2 monosaccharides forms disaccharide
disaccharides are formed by _______________
dehydration synthesis
glucose + fructose
sucrose (table sugar)
glucose + galactose
lactose (milk sugar)
glucose + glucose
maltose (malt sugar)
-most complex -aka glycans -long chains of glucose units (300-1000)
way polysaccharides are referred to in medicine
highly branched polysaccharides
-animal starch -stored in in skeletal muscles and the liver
-unbranched -insoluable in water -can not be digested(only cows, camels, goats etc) -referred to as roughage/fiber -stimulates peristalsis
wavelike contractions that move food through the digestive system
good bacteria in kimchi, sauerkraut, yogurt
lipid makeup
-C, H, O -sometimes nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus -H:O much greater than 2:1
types of lipid
- neutral lipid (fats) - phospholipids -steroids (basic structure of hormones) -waxes (protection in ear and plants)
stored energies like triglycerides that protect and insulate our bodies
neutral lipids (fats)
types of steroids
-cholesterol -biosalts -vitamin D -sex hormones -corticosalts
hole under leaf of plants or hole for ostomy
fiber supplement, made of psyllium
fatty acids
-principle components of lipids -carbon chains of varying lengths with an acid group attached at one end - saturated & unsaturated
all available carbon bonds filled with H atoms in fatty acid chain
all available carbon bonds not filled with H atoms in fatty acid chain (1+ double bonds in carbon chain)
one or more double bond is present in fatty acid chain
two or more double bonds present in fatty acid chain
enzyme that breaks down lipids
LDL stands for
low density lipoprotein
neutral lipids (fats)
-comprised of a glycerol molecule + 3 fatty-acids -most abundant lipids in body -important sources of energy reserve -referred to as tryglycerides -stored in adipose cells -found just beneath skin -help protect deeper organs from bumps/heat loss
characteristics of saturated fats
-aka animal fats -solid at room temp -not essential to health -found in meats, eggs(yolks), cheese, milk -hard to digest, raises blood cholesterol levels -found in some plant foods such as coconut, coconut oil, and palm oil -no kinks
characteristics of unsaturated fats
-aka oils -liquid at room temp -mono/polyunsaturated are the types -have kinks/double bonds
-contain C,H,O,P -has glycerol, 2 fatty-acid chains, and a phosphate group -phosphate group is the head, is polar -fatty acid chains are nonpolar and make up tail
tails of phospholipids are ________
heads of phospholipids are ___________
lipid bilayers formed in the presence of water
principle components of cell membranes
lipid bilayers
flat molecules formed from four interlocking rings called the steroid nucleus attached to a fatty acid chain
-single most important steroid -found in all cell membranes -enters body through diet -produced by liver -keeps membranes fluid
-most abundant biosynthetic organic compounds in cells -C, H, O, N (sometimes S, P, Fe) -amino acids
building blocks of proteins
amino acids
characteristics of amino acids
-22 different types, 20 used for proteins -distinguished by R group -bonded together by peptide bonds
protein structure
-synthesized from any number and sequence of amino acids -50 to 1000s of amino acids -amino acids linked by peptide bonds
primary structure
-the order of a protein's amino acids -proteins do NOT normally exist in this form (not functional) -each held together by a peptide bond
the result of the interaction of certain amino acids through hydrogen bonding
secondary structure
a spiral-shaped region formed by coiling of the primary structure
alpha helix
has the shape of a fan-folded sheet of paper
beta-plated sheet
tertiary structure
-result of more complex interactions between certain amino acids, and between amino acids and water through hydrogen bonding -full 3-d folded structure -biologically active form -fibrous & globular
have an extended rope-like structure - not water soluble (structural protein)
fibrous protein
compact, somewhat spherical shape - water soluble (functional protein)
globular protein
globular proteins are generally:
- non-structural enzymes -mobile - have at least a tertiary structure -do things other than forming structures
found in bones, cartilages, and tendons (fibrous)
structural protein of hair, nails, and other materials that makes skin tough
quaternary structure
-some proteins (hemoglobin and collagen) -consists of two or more tertiary structures bonded together -biologically active form
water-loving amino acids will ____________
stay near the surface
water fearing amino acids will ______________________________
be buried in the protein core
protein function depends upon _________
its 3D shape
loss of 3D shape = __________
loss of function
when a protein loses its 3D shape
enzymes are
globular proteins that act as catalysts
anything that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction, does not become part of the products
slows down the rate of a chemical reaction
means enzymes can only do one job
suffix that means enzyme
protein part
non-protein part
coenzyme (co-factor)
characteristics of coenzymes
- minerals: Ca, Fe, Mg, Cu - vitamins: C and B-complex (vitamin b 2, 3 , 6, 12) -usually contributor to enzyme function by accepting and transferring atoms, or groups of atoms, between enzyme
an apoenzyme together with its cofactor
enzyme function
-chemical reactions depend upon the random collisions of molecules -collisions require high activation energies -uses heat as activation energy -heat not high enough in the body -enzymes bind with reacting compounds to insure effective collisions at lower activation energies -will not change shape in order to stay in active form -bind to substrates and break them into products -substrate binds with enzyme at active site -substances are added/removed from substrate to break down into 2 products
proteins will not be formed until needed
gene regulations
nucleic acid makeup
C, H, O, N, P
nucleic acids
-building blocks of nucleic acids -3 parts : phosphate group, pentose (5-c) sugar, nitrogen base
types of nucleic acids
dna- sugar is always deoxyribose -rna-sugar is always ribose
-two ringed -adenine -guanine
-one ringed -cytosine -thymine (only dna) -uracil (only rna)
two-sided spiral
double helix
how nucleotides interact in DNA:
-covalent bonding between adjacent nucleotides -hydrogen bonding between adjacent bases
______ bonds between A and T
______ bonds between G and C
complementary bases
deoxyribose is a ____ C sugar
types of rna & function:
- messenger RNA(mRNA) : made in nucleus, moves to cytoplasm - ribosomial RNA (rRNA) : ensures the proper alignment of the mRNA and the ribosomes during protein synthesis and catalyzes the formation of the peptide bonds - transfer RNA (tRNA) : will have an anti-codon
mRNA is a _______ structure
tRNA is a ________ structure
characteristics of rRNA
-globular protein -water soluable -tertiary structure
the simplest sugar upon which life is built is _________
the three basic monosaccharides are ___________
glucose, fructose, and galactose
a disaccharide is a combination of two ________
a disaccharide found in milk is ________
ogliosaccharides consist from ___ to ___ monosaccharides
3 to 10
__________ are composed of hundreds or even thousands of monosaccharides linked together
two classes of polysaccharides are ______ and ________
starches and celluloses
carbohydrates can be broken apart or digested by a chemical process called _______
monosaccharides can be combined to form disaccharides by a chemical process called a _______ reaction
dehydration synthesis
t/f fructose is a monosccharide found in fruits
t/f lactose is a monosaccharide found in milk
t/f glucose is sweeter than fructose
t/f galactose is sweeter than glucose
t/f ogliosaccharides are important components of glycolipids and glycoproteins
t/f glycogen is a type of polysaccharide called starch
t/f a hydrolysis involves the removal of water
t/f a dehydration involves the removal of water
lacking lactase, an enzyme that breaks down lactose
lactose intolerant
result of carbohydrate loading in the body
will give you more energy, therefore more endurance
cis fat, has double bond on sixth carbon
omega 6
a protein digesting enzyme that acts in the stomach and is inactivated by an alkaline pH
________ found in the phospholipid bi-layer maintains fluidity
_________ tails have hydrogen all of the way around the carbons
fatty acid
why are saturated fats solid at room temperature?
because they are straight and can pack up on other triglycerides
how is olestra made?
took a normal triglyceride, built around a sucrose, and hyrogenated