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Science exam term 3

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61 Terms
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Respiration definition
the action of breathing
Photosynthesis definition
The process by which plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to create oxygen and energy in the form of sugar.
Digestion definition
the breaking down of food into small molecules which are then absorbed into the body
Peristalsis definition
Peristalsis is a series of wave-like muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract
Reproduction definition
The process of an organism generates and offspring to continue the existence of the species
asexual reproduction
reproduction from solely a single organism
Sexual reproduction
reproduction using the union of male and female reproductive cells (gametes)
Fertilisation definition
the process of fusion of the female gamete, the ovum or egg and the male gamete produced in the pollen tube by the pollen grain.
Pollination definition
The process of getting pollen from the anther to the stigma
Gamete definition
A gamete is a reproductive cell of an animal or plant
sperm cell
the male reproductive cell; the male gamete structure: the tail, which propels the sperm to the egg and helps it to burrow through the egg coat function: to enable sexual reproduction through its union with the female egg during fertilization
egg cell
the female reproductive cell, or gamete structure: function: connect with the male sperm cell in order to become fertilised and produce offspring
Red blood cell
carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. have a flat disk shaper, which creates increased surface area to carry more oxygen
white blood cell
function: detect and deal with infections or foreign molecules that enter your body structure:
muscle cell
structure: Each strand is made up of sub-units called "sarcomeres." These sarcomeres contain the "contraction proteinsā€ called actin and myosin function: Their predominant function is contractibility. Muscles, attached to bones or internal organs and blood vessels, are responsible for movement
nerve cell
The basic unit of communication in the nervous system structure: one elongated extension (axon) for sending impulses and usually many branches (dendrites) function: receiving impulses
gaurd cell
structure: regulating the opening and closure of stomatal pores function: airs of epidermal cells that control gas diffusion by regulating the opening and closure of stomatal pores
trachea function
To carry air in and out of your lungs
Bronchi function
Your bronchi carry air to and from your lungs
Alveoli function
The alveoli are where the lungs and the blood exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide during the process of breathing in and breathing out
Summary Gas exchange
Oxygen moves from the lungs to the bloodstream. At the same time carbon dioxide passes from the blood to the lungs.
Stamen
The male reproductive part of the flower (anther and filament)
Sepal
protects the bud
Stigma
receives the pollen from the visiting pollinators
Filament
supports the anther
style
leads the pollen down to the ovary
pistil
The female reproductive part of the flower (stigma and style, ovary)
petal
Bright and colourful to attract pollinators
ovary
to prepare ovules for fertilization
Anther
Creates pollen
cell
A basic unit of structure and function in an organism.
tissue
A group of cells that work together to perform a task.
organ
Two or more tissues working together to perform a task.
organ system
Organ that work together to perform a task.
Organism
a living thing
nucleus
The command center of cells. it contains our chromosomes and genetic information needed for the reproduction of life. (DNA)
Endoplasmic reticulum
Works closely with ribosomes to produce and deliver important cell products.
cell membrane
a very thin layer, composed of lipids and protein, that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and controls the passage of substance into and out of the cell
mitochondria
The powerhouse of the cell - it takes the food we eat and converts it to energy for cell activities.
organelles
specialised structured within a living cell.
vacuoles
Used to store different substances. Are larger in plants than animals
ribosomes
makes proteins
Golgi bodies
packages products to deliver to the cell.
Nuclear membrane
surrounds and protects the nucleus
Nucleolus
it is responsible for making ribosomes and it is found inside the nucleus
cell wall
The outermost layer of cells in plants, that gives shape to thee cell and protects it from infections.
cytoplasm
The jellylike material that makes up much of a cell inside the cell membrane
cytosol
Used to describe the liquid within Cytoplasm and all the organelles suspended within it.
chloroplast
contains pigment (chlorophyll) that allows the plant to photosynthesise
difference between a plant and animal cell
Plant cells - have a cell wall, - contain chlorophyll - have large vacuoles
levels of organisation
cell -> tissue -> organ -> organ system -> organism
digestive system function
A group of organs which work together to covert food into energy
digestive system order
mouth -> oesophagus -> stomach -> small intestine -> large intestine -> rectum -> anus (gum to bum)
The respiratory system function
allows us to breath they bring oxygen into our bodies and send carbon dioxide out
Respiratory system order
Nasal passage -> larynx -> trachea -> bronchi -> bronchioles -> alveoli
why does the oesophagus work upside down
the muscles in our esophagus constrict and relax, which is called peristalsis and pushes food along the esophagus and into the stomach
Circulatory system function
The circulatory system is made up of blood vessels that carry blood away from and towards the heart.
Diaphragm function
Upon inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and flattens and the chest cavity enlarges. This contraction creates a vacuum, which pulls air into the lungs.
Reproduction system function
To generate offspring's to continue the existence of a species
Physical and chemical digesetion
Cell theory
1) All organisms are made of cells. 2) All existing cells are produced by other living cells. 3) The cell is the most basic unit of life.