MIS 200 Exam 3 Herfurth

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the cloud
elastic leasing of pooled computer resources over the internet
Computer Network
a system that connects computers and other devices via communications media so that data and information can be transmitted among them
Local area network; computers connected at a single physical site
Wide Area Network; computers connected between two or more separated sites
a network designed for the exclusive use of computer users within an organization that cannot be accessed by users outside the organization
a network configuration that allows selected outside organizations to access internal information systems
IP address
A number that uniquely identifies each computer or device connected to the Internet.
An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like
HTTPS protocol
uses http in conjunction with the SSL/TLS protocol to provide secure communication
using the public internet to build a secure, private network connecting distant locations
resource elasticity
automatically adjust resources for unpredictable demand
Pooled computer resources
organizations share same physical hardware through virtualization so the cost decreases
Why many organizations are moving to the cloud V.S. why they are not
ARE: lower costs, ubiquitous access, improved scalability, elasticity, virtualization technology, internet-based standards enable flexible & standardized processing capabilities ARE NOT: when law or standard industry practive require physical control or possession of the data, financial institutions are legally required to maintain physical control over their data
When is VPN used
when you need to remote into the local area network of wherever you need to be
Net Neutrality
the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers.
the investment of resources for future profit
Social media
IT for sharing content amoung networks of users, enables communities of practice
Social capital
social relations with expectation of marketplace returns
Revenue models
Advertising, subscriptions, transaction fees, sales, and affiliate revenue.
location service allowing applications to know when a user has crossed a virtual fence
conversion rate
Frequency someone clicks on ad makes a purchase, "likes" a site, or takes some other action desired by advertiser
vanity metrics
things that dont matter, not tied to organizations strategy or values
Key performance indicators (KPIs)
The quantifiable metrics a company uses to evaluate progress toward critical success factors
success metrics
measurements to track performance toward goals
Social media provider vs. social media user
Providers: facebook, google, linkedin, twitter, etc. attracting demographic groups Users: individuals and organizations
benefits of social media for organizations
customers can have a direct relationship with the products, organizations can get the word out there
pros vs. cons of problem solving via social media
leaving it, respond to it, or delete it; can be pros and cons to all
value of social capital
number of relationships, strength of relationships, and resources controlled; information, influence, social credentials, personal reinforcement
determining the best revenue model for an organization
advertising, freemium, sales; whichever makes more sense for the organization
how social media fits into organizational strategy
social media changes the balance of power amoung users, communities, and organizations
role of social media in value chain activities
value chains determine business processes, processes determine SMIS requirements, dynamic process flows cannot be designed or diagrammed
can come in different ways, hackers, natural disasters, etc.
threats attack vunerabilities, somewhere a threat could attack
aim for money or information, most of the time ends in loss
someone pretends to be someone else
technique for intercepting computer communications
another term for someone pretending to be someone else
a similar technique for obtaining unauthorized data that uses pretexting via email
breaking into computers, servers, or networks to steal data
denial of service attack
a cyber attack in which an attacker sends a flood of data packets to the target computer, with the aim of overloading its resources
human safeguard
steps taken to protect against security threats by establishing appropriate procedures for users to follow for system use
technical safeguard
identification and authorization, encryption, firewalls, malware protection, application design
a small text file that a web server stores on your computer
packet-filtering firewall
examines each part of a message and determines whether to let that part pass
software that is intended to damage or disable computers and computer systems.
a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication.
Software that encrypts programs and data until a ransom is paid to remove it.
identification vs. authentication
identification - identifies the user authentication - authenticates the user (password, PIN, smart cards, biometric auth.)
threat/loss scenario illustration
knowt flashcard image
types of security loss and examples of each
1. Unauthorized data disclosure - people gaining access to data they should and being able to sell it 2. Incorrect data modification - changing data in a companies database 3. Faulty service - making services not work 4. Denial of Service - service doesnt work because of an attack or human error 5. Loss of infastructure - physical hardware or software goes down
common motivations behind hacking
information, money
how DoS works
Human error - inadvertently shut down a web server or corporate gateway router (black friday too many ppl on website) Malicious hacker intentionally floods a web server with millions of bogus requests to prevent legitamite traffic from getting through
Types of security threats
unauthorized data disclosure, incorrect data modification, faulty service, denial of service, loss of infrastructure
Types of IS security safeguards
technical safeguards, data safeguards, and human safeguards
how organizations decide to manage IS risk
having a plan in place, centralized reporting, specific responses (speed, perparation, dont make the problem worse), practice
How does encryption work?
transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication
How do firewalls work?
computing device that prevents unauthorized access
when and how human safeguards are used in IS security
dissemination and enforcement to train employees on computer safety, termination, being aware of security protocalls, account management, password management, help desk policies
when and how technical safeguards are used in IS security
logging into a system using authentication, knowing https is safe, ecryption when you dont want someone to see your message, firewalls so someone cant get passed and get into the network
BI systems
information systems that process operational and other data to identify patterns, relationships, and trends for use by business professionals and other knowledge workers
Data warehouse
obtain data, cleanse data, organize and relate data, catalog data
data mart
contains a subset of data warehouse information
data that describes other data
Knowledge management
finding the right information, keeping the information in a readily accessible place, and making the information known to everyone in the firm
content management systems
support management and delivery of documents, other expressions of employee knowledge
artificial intelligence
The ability of a machine to simulate human abilities such as vision, communication, recognition, learning, and decision making in order to achieve a goal
Weak AI vs. Strong AI
weak: focused on completing a single specific taks strong: can complete all of the same tasks a human can
Turing Test
Alan Turing said a machine could be considered intelligent if a human could have a conversation with it and not be able to tell if it was a machine or a human
Tasks of BI Systems
informing, deciding, problem solving, and project management
Three primary activities in the BI process
acquire data, perform analysis, publish results
data acquisition options
Three types of BI analysis
reporting, data mining, BigData
how data mining works and why we do it
use sophisticated statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships
Push vs Pull Publishing
Push happens automatically, pull the knowledge workers have to ask for it
Static vs Dynamic reports
static: prepped once from the underlying data dynamic: at the time of creation, the reporting system reads the most current data and generates the report using the new data
elements of a BI system
knowt flashcard image
role of humans interacting with BI
potential impact of artificial intelligence on the job market
join two or more text strings into one string
Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given condition
Adds the cells specified by a given condition or criteria.
Finds average(arithmetic mean) for the cells specified by a given condition or criteria.
small graphs used to represent a series of data; show trends in a series of values, economic cycles, or highlight max or min values
Importance of KPIs
KPIs are often depicted as dashboards with graphs/charts for an at-a-glance status report