AP Bio - Unit 3

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41 Terms
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Anabolic reaction
Energy and smaller molecules create larger molecule (ex: photosynthesis)
Catabolic reaction
Larger molecule broken down into energy and smaller molecules (ex: cellular respiration)
Exegonic reaction
Reaction where energy is released, occur spontaneously
Endergonic reaction
Reaction that requires energy
Coupling reactions
The released energy of an exegonic reaction used to fuel an endergonic reaction; used by ATP when it releases the third phosphate
Something that alters the rate of reaction
Catalyzing reactions by lowering activation energy, made of protein chains
pH and enzymes
Higher pH, more hydrogen bonds pulling at the shape of the enzymes
When an enzyme loses its shape; can occur with factors such as pH and temperature
Competitive inhibitor
Inhibitor - Competing with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme
Noncompetitive inhibitors
Inhibitor - binds to a part of the enzyme (not the active site), so that it changes shape
Allosteric site
Enzyme regulators bind here, so that the enzyme changes shape and is able to stop catalyzing products when needed
Organic cofactor
"Helpers" that enable the enzyme to function properly; ex - metal ions
Alcoholic and lactic acid fermentation
Two types of fermentation
Cellular respiration
The process of creating ATP energy from glucose
Alcoholic fermentation
After glycolysis, pyruvate is converted to ethanol - occurs in yeast cells
Lactic acid fermentation
After glycolysis, pryuvate is reduced by NADH and lactic acid is created as a waste product - occurs in
Pryuvate, NADH, ATP
Products of glycolysis
Pyruvate is oxidized by NAD+, letting off CO2, and then linking to Coenzyme A to create Acetyl CoA
Next step in cellular respiration after pyruvate goes into the mitochondria
ADP, NADH, FADH2 (also releases C02)
Products of the Kreb Cycle
Process of making ATP using the stored energy in the ETC
Oxidative phosphorylation
Step of oxidative phosphorylation - movement of ions down the electrochemical gradient, energy used by ATP Synthase to create ATP from ADP
The molecules that bring electrons to the ETC in cellular respiration
O2, combines with H to create water
The final electron acceptor in cellular respiration
It keeps the electrochemical gradient balanced the way it should be; H goes out so FADH and NADH2 can drop off more molecules
Why is O2 necessary for oxidative phosphorylation?
Plants/ self feeders
Organisms relying on compounds produced by other organisms for energy, also called consumers
Where CO2 enters and H2O exits a plant; similar to the matrix of mitochondria
Where photosynthesis reactions take place in the chloroplast; light dependent reactions occur in the membrane and Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma
Create energy to drive the Calvin Cycle through the creation of ATP and NADH
What is the purpose of light dependent reactions?
Light is absorbed, electrons in Photosystem II are excited and bump up to the primary acceptor
What happens first in light dependent reactions?
They go through the ETC into Photosystem I
Where do electrons go after being excited in Photosystem II?
Light energy excites the electrons to the primary acceptor of Photosystem I
What happens to electrons in Photosystem I?
NADP+ is reduced and carries the electrons to the Calvin Cycle
After being sent out of Photosystem I, where do electrons go?
Stroma = low hydrogen concentration, interior of thykaloid (thykaloid lumen) = high concentration
Where are the highs and lows of the concentration gradient in photosynthesis?
ATP Synthase uses the concentration gradient of the thykaloid to power combination of Pi and ADP (process called chemiosmosis)
How is ATP created in light dependent reactions?
Combines with a 5 carbon acceptor molecule called RuBP - catalyzed by enzyme called rubisco
What happens to CO2 first in the Calvin Cycle?
The CO2/RuBP combination splits into 2 molecules of 3-PGA
After CO2 combines with RuBP in the Calvin Cycle, what happens? (Aka carbon fixation phase)
Using NADPH and ATP from the light dependent reactions, 3-PGA is reduced into G3P
In the Calvin Cycle, what occurs during the Reduction stage?
G3P either exits the cycle to create glucose, or goes to regenerate RuBP
In the Calvin Cycle, where do the molecules of G3P go? (Aka regeneration phase)