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Biology Test 2 Vocab

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52 Terms
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Character
Detectable inheritable feature e.g. flower colour
Trait
Character determined by an allele e.g. purple or white flower
Dominant trait
Trait that only requires one copy the gene to express itself (capital letters) e.g. brown eyes
Recessive trait
Trait that requires both copies of the gene to express itself (lower case letters) e.g. blue eyes
True breeding
Fertilization that produces offsprings with the same traits
Allele
Alternate form of a gene. Responsible for variations in the inherited characters
Locus
Location of a gene
Phenotype
Physical expression of a gene
Genotype
Organism's genetic makeup
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles of a gene (BB or bb)
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a gene
Punnett square
Table showing all possible combinations of alleles.
Test crossing
Test done to determine if an organism expressing the dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous
Monohybrid cross
Cross of heterozygous F1s with their parents differering in only one gene
Dihybrid cross
Cross of heterozygous F1s with their parents differing in two genes
Incomplete dominance
Heterozygotes show an intermediate phenotype e.g. red pink white flower
Codominance
Heterozygotes express both alleles e.g. AB blood type
Multiple alleles
More than two possible alleles for a gene e.g. Iᴬ, Iᴮ, i blood genotypes
Pleiotropy
A single gene has multiple phenotypic effects e.g. sickle cell anemia
Epistasis
Gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at another locus e.g. black brown blond dog
Polygenic inheritance
Two or more genes leads to a single phenotypic character e.g. skin color
Autosomal recessive disorder
Phenotype that is expressed by two recessive alleles found on an autosome
Autosomal dominant disorder
Phenotype that is expressed by only one disease allele on an autosome
X-linked trait
Phenotype that is expressed by recessive alleles in the X chromosome
Lyon hypothesis
X-Inactivation occurs randomly in embryonic cells
Pedigree
Diagram showing the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family.
Fimbriae
Appendage to attach to host and gain entrance
Sex pili
Structure for bacterial conjugation
Photoautotroph
Organism that uses light as a source of energy to synthesize organic substances.
Chemoautotroph
Organism that produces energy by oxidation of inorganic compounds
Chemoheterotroph
Organism that consumes organic molecules for energy and ATP
Saprophytic
Organism that absorb nutrients from dead organisms
Symbiosis
Interaction between smaller symbiont and larger host
Obligate aerobe
Bacteria that require oxygen to grow
Facultative anaerobe
Bacteria that grows with or without oxygen (is capable of fermentation)
Obligate anaerobe
Organism that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen
Colonial
Collection of unicellular organisms living together
Charophyte
Group of green algae most closely related to land plants
Volvox
Colonial chlorophyta algae exhibiting division of labour between cells
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Chlamydomonas
Unicellular chlorophyta algae with two flagella
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Phragmoplast
A group of microtubules
Rhizoid
Primitive roots of the moss
Stomata
Pores for gas exchange
Waxy cuticle
Very waxy (lipid) material which prevents leaves from drying out in the sun
Desiccation
Drying out of a living organism
Vascular system
Composed of the xylem and the phloem
Xylem
Nonliving vascular tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals up using passive transport
Phloem
Living vascular tissue that carries sugar and organic substances up and down using active transport
Lignin
Complexe polysaccharide which enables plants to have support and grow tall
H2O fertilization
The sperm needs water to meet the female gamete
Pollen
Male sperm in plants
Seed
Fertilized egg (zygote) in a protective coat which provides nutrition and protection