Unit 3 Bio - Microscopes and Cell Membrane

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Robert Hooke
invented the word “cells” by looking at a piece of cork under a microscope; the little holes looked like chamber cells
Anton Leeuwenhoek
examined pond water and human mouth cells; discovered “bacteria”
Matthais Schleiden
all plants are made of cells
Theodor Schwann
all animals are made of cells
Rudolph Virchow
new cells are produced from the division of existing cells
all living things are made up of cells cells are the basic units of structure in living things new cells are produced from existing cells
What are the 3 parts of cell theory?
where the glass slide is placed for observation
objective lens
magnifies the image of the specimen
stage clip
the clips that hold the glass slide on the stage
light source
transmits light through the specimen for better viewing
eyepiece or ocular lens
at top of microscope; magnifies the real image/specimen
controls the angle of the light
coarse adjustment
allows for quick focusing on the specimen by moving the stage up and down
fine adjustment
focuses the image when viewing at higher magnification
supports the tube and connects the base
body tube
separates the objective and the eyepiece
Light Microscope or Electron Microscope? uses light to create images of outlines like cells and organisms
Light Microscope or Electron Microscope? used on living and non-living specimens
Light Microscope or Electron Microscope? Magnification : low (x4), medium (x10), high (x40)
Light Microscope or Electron Microscope? uses a beam of electrons to create images
Light Microscope or Electron Microscope? sees cells as small as 1 millionth of a meter,
Light Microscope or Electron Microscope? vacuum seal organisms/cells so they are non-living
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)? explores cell structures/large molecules
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)? 2D images
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)? specimen must be sliced ultra thin before being examined
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)? scans the surface of an organism's/specimens
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)? 3D
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)? x26 magnification
dyes used on specimens so they can be seen clearly under microscope
structures found inside cells that is involved making proteins
Cell membrane
boundary of the cell, controls what goes in and out
gel like fluid that fills the cell and gives it its structure
genetic material/information that makes up the function/structure of an organism
ribosomes, cell membrane, cytoplasm, and DNA
What organelles do prokaryotes and eukaryotes share?
have no nucleus, no membrane bound organelles (freely moving), contain bacteria and archaea cells (unicellular)
have a nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, contain animal, plant, fungi, and protists cells (unicellular and multicellular)
prokaryotes that live in harsh and extreme environments
prokaryotes that can destroy reproduction, the cell wall, and proteins
Cell Wall
structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. It can be tough, flexible, and sometimes rigid (protists/bacteria/archaea/plant)
hairlike structure that acts primarily as an organelle of motion in the cells of many living organisms (bacteria/archaea)
Golgi apparatus
transport and modifies proteins and lipids into vesicles for targeted destinations (animal)
all cells and chloroplast in plant cells function and energy processing
a membrane-bound cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes (animal)
Fluid Mosaic Model
describes the structure of the plasma membrane as a mosaic of components —including phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and carbohydrates—that gives the membrane a fluid character
Integral proteins
helps transport certain material across the cell membrane
Peripheral proteins
a class of membrane proteins that attach to the lipid bilayer; support, communication, enzymes, and molecule transfer in the cell.
helps maintain flexibility of membrane
makes up the bilayer; phosphate heads are polar, hydrophilic; two lipid tails are hydrophobic and nonpolar
involved in cell to cell recognition; maintain stability
enable cell to cell recognition
Active Transport
most chemicals use it, requires energy (ATP) - cellular energy; low to high concentration; uses carrier proteins and ATP to transport materials against concentration gradient
AT; materials get transported outside of a cell caused by a vesicle
AT; how materials get inside the cell
endocytosis; engulf harmful bacteria, membrane forms vesicle around the bacteria and then the enzymes destroy it
endocytosis; surrounds things that have already been dissolved
receptor-mediated endocytosis
uses receptors to import macromolecules from the extracellular fluid. Occurs in very small concentrations
Passive Transport
does not require energy; high to low concentration gradient (moved with it)
when molecules get crowded and they would find spaces that aren’t crowded.
diffusion; movement of water molecules
Facilitated diffusion
particles use a channel protein to cross the membrane: large, ionic, and polar molecules
Simple diffusion
particles move directly through the cell membrane: small and non-polar
Concentration Gradient
occurs when the concentration of particles is higher in one area than another
Protein Channels
PT; span the membrane and make hydrophilic tunnels across it, allowing their target molecules to pass through by diffusion
Protein Pumps
AT; move ions against the gradient of concentration across membranes
knowt flashcard image
Small hydrophobic molecules and gasses like oxygen and carbon dioxide
What molecules/particles can easily go through the membrane?
Large molecules, polar molecules, and ions, glucose, amino acids, proteins, they need a channel or pump
What molecules/particles have a harder Time Moving Through the membrane?
polar molecules like water have a harder time because the inside of the cell membrane is a lipid which is nonpolar. This means they are hydrophobic and hate the water that is going through them. They want to try and get away from it
Why do polar molecules like water, have a harder time going through the membrane?