IB: Cold War

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Cold War Orthodox View
The Cold War was a result of fighting the aggressive advances of communism around the globe.
Cold War Revisionists View
The Cold War was a result of mutual suspicion between the superpowers.
Cold War Post-Revisionists View
The Cold War was not the fault of either superpower but was inevitable.
Containment Theory
The US theory that stated, if Communism in Asia could be restrained in the area the system would eventually die out.
Domino Theory
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Peaceful Coexistence
Khrushchev's proposal that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. could compromise and learn to live with each other.
Flexible Response
A policy, developed during the Kennedy administration, that involved preparing for a variety of military responses to international crises rather than focusing on the use of nuclear weapons.
New Look
The defense policy of the Eisenhower administration that stepped up production of the hydrogen bomb and developed long-range bombing capabilities.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology; an example being Turkey and Greece.
Marshall Plan
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Iron Curtain
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
Berlin Airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Soviets closed off land access to Berlin
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
Nikita Khrushchev
A Soviet leader during the Cuban Missile Crisis and advocated for "Peaceful Coexistence" of the superpowers.
Henry Kissinger
The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon's presidency (1970s).
Korean War
Vietnam War
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem
Leader of South Vietnam
Sygman Rhee
Leader of South Korea
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of North Korea
38th Parallel
Dividing line between North and South Korea
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A network of paths used by North Vietnam to transport supplies to the Vietcong in South Vietnam
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the Vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawal of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 Congressional resolution that authorized President Johnson to commit US troops to South Vietnam.
Tet Offensive
a massive surprise attack by the Vietcong on South Vietnamese towns and cities in early 1968.
Search and Destroy
American war tactic that terrorized Vietnamese villagers and turning them against communism
Strategic Hamlet Program
- isolate peasants from Vietcong (southern rebels) - put them in compounds - alienated villagers - meant to avoid killing our allies
Mao Zedong
Chinese Communist leader from 1949 to 1976.
Alliance for Progress
a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
Suez Canal Crisis
Military attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel in 1956 after Egypt seized the Suez Canal from British administration.
U2 Incident
The downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960.
An alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Second Berlin Crisis
May 1959, US has six months to get out of Berlin or there will be war. Eventually, Khrushchev meets with Eisenhower and they agree to a summit conference.
Geneva Accords
Temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel
Eisenhower Doctrine
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country
Nixon Doctrine
It stated that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
Reagan Doctrine
US would support freedom fighters trying to overthrow Communist regimes.
Evil Empire
Ronald Reagan's nickname for the Soviet Union; illustrated an end to detente.
United Fruit Company
U.S. corporation that controlled the banana trade in much of Latin America
1950s leader of Guatemala, overthrown by people
Fidel Castro
Communist leader of Cuba
Mutual Assured Destruction
the strategy assuming that, as long as two countries can destroy each other with nuclear weapons, they will be afraid to use them
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
Peace Corps
Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations
Soviet-Afghan War
A war between Afghanistan and USSR. Afghanistan wins with the help of the US. Big defeat for the USSR.
United Nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Berlin Wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Space Race
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
National Education Defense Act
Offered direct federal funding to higher education in order to combat the increasing scientific prowess of the Soviet Union.
Highway Act of 1956
- Eisenhower - national defense - approved funds for interstate highway system - facilitate commerce and enable military to move around US more easily
The site where the armistice was signed during the Korean War. It ended hostilities of the Korean conflict.
Results of Cuban Missile Crisis
developed a hotline between the white house and kremlin. saved us from a nuclear attack=Kennedy's popularity went up
Results of Berlin Airlift
1. Berlin and Germany remained divided 2. German Federal Republic (West Germany) created 3. German Democratic Republic (East Germany) created
Results of the Second Berlin Crisis
1. West Berlin divided from East Germany. 2. The tensions were not escalated, but not de-escalated. 3. East Germany begins to culturally and economically develop.
Revolutions of 1989
fall/collapse of communism, revolutions which overthrew Soviet-style communist states in the Eastern-Bloc.
Viet Cong/National Liberation Front
Communistic guerrilla forces who launched attacks on the Diem government.
John F. Kennedy
Harry S. Truman
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Lyndon B. Johnson
Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
Jimmy Carter
Ronald Reagan
South African Apartheid
Official South African government policy and laws designed to segregate whites from blacks and to oppress black citizens; -whites of South Africa (10%) invented this to control 90% of the black population
Panama Canal Treaty
Signed in 1977, it stated that Panama would gain control of the canal after 1999
Program of democratization implemented by Gorbachev
Strategic Defense Initiative
Reagan's Star Wars defense system to shoot down missiles while they're in space.
Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
Iron Curtain Speech
Given by the former Prime Minister of Britain, Winston Churchill, in which he talks about the dangers of communism engulfing Europe.
A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
An economic system based on private ownership of capital
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Camp David Accords
The first signed agreement between Israel and an Arab country, in which Egyptian president Anwar Sadat recognized Israel as a legitimate state and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt.