Congenital and Hereditary diseases: Developmental disturbances, Genetic abnormality (Hemophilia).
Intrauterine injury: Congenital heart disease induced by German measles virus during pregnancy.
Interaction of genetic and environmental factors: Asthma.
Inflammatory diseases: The body reacts to an agent through inflammation, autoimmune diseases, allergic reaction, reacting to bacteria or microbiologic agents.
– Degenerative diseases: degenerations of various parts of the body, A manifestation of the aging process, osteoperosis (Loss of Bone).
Metabolic diseases : A disturbance in metabolic process in the body, Eg diabetes, disturbance of glucose.
Neoplastic diseases: Characterized by abnormal cell growth that leads to the formation of various types of tumors.
Computed tomography: Xray rotates around to produce a cross-section Xray.
Magnetic resonance Imaging: Magnetic field transmits and receives radiofrequency waves, dependant on response of H+ and water content of body tissues.
Positron emission tomography: Radioisotope procedure using cyclotron.
Epithelium: closely joined cells cover surfaces
Muscle: Composed of actin and myosin Proteins
Nerve: Neurons and supporting Neuroglia
Connective: widely separated cells + Matrix
Golgi apparatus: transports and modifies proteins
Endoplasmic reticulum: synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins
Hematopoietic Stem cells: Pluripotent cells with the potential to undergo cell divisions in order to, Increase or maintain numbers, Generate a heterogenous pool of progenitors, Sustain haematopoiesis.
RBC activation: Kidneys detect low O2 in blood > secrete erythropoietin (EPO) > Stimulates erythropoiesis by the bone marrow > additional erythrocytes increase O2 carry capacity of blood.
Magekaryopoiesis: Cells stop dividing, become endomitotic, - increase their nuclear and cytoplasmic volume and ploidy - repeated mitosis without division (Platelet production).
Macrophages: detect, engulf, destroy pathogens and apoptotic cells, stimulate the immune system by presenting antigens on their cell surface, and producing cytokines.
Basophils: antigen presentation, stimulation, and differentiation of CD4+ T cells.
Eosinophils: immune response and pathogenesis of the allergic or autoimmune disease.
Mast cells: have granules rich in heparin and histamine and are important in allergy and immune tolerance.
Neutrophils: most abundant leukocyte found in human blood, cellular immune response.
Bone Marrow: Stem cells reside in the bone marrow in a low oxygen environment called the niche where they remain quiescent before eventually dividing and differentiating.