control: in a controlled experiment a set of subjects that lacks or does not receive the specific factor that is being tested.
experimental: a set of subjects that has the specific factor being tested
redox reactions: a chemical reaction that involves the complete or partial transfer of ONE or MORE electrons from one reactant to another
- the loss of electrons from one substance is called oxidation
- the addition of electrons to another substance is called reduction
- some redox reactions change the degree of electron sharing in covalent bonds
- energy must be added to pull an electron away from an atom
- potential energy lost when= shift from less electronegative atom to a more electronegative atom
- redox moves electrons closer to oxygen like the burning of methane because chemical energy is released to be put to work
organic compound: chemical compound that contains carbon
inorganic compounds: bases, acids, salts, and water
*How does polarity influence the way is interacts with a specific molecule?
-due to its polarity water molecules are attracted to other water molecules because of the opposite charges between them
-it is attracted to other polar molecules and ions
-water is a polar molecule and when a polar substance is put in water, the positive ends of it is attracted to the negative ends of the water (hydrophilic)
-non polar substances would not dissolve easily and they are hydrophobic, these molecules would stick together and form a tight membrane which would prevent water from surrounding the molecule
*How do enzymes play a role in feedback inhibition?
-feedback inhibition occurs when the end product of a reaction interferes with the enzyme that helped produce it. The inhibitor does this by binding to a second active binding site that's different from the one attached to the initial reactant. The enzyme then changes shape and can't catalyze the reaction anymore.
*What environmental factors influence enzymes and how are they affected?
-Enzyme activity is affected by many factors such as temperature, pH and concentration. Enzymes work best within specific temperatures and pH ranges. without optimal conditions, the enzyme can lose its ability to bind to a substrate
ribosomes: The workers that build the proteins, they float freely n the cytoplasm or in the rough ER
cell membrane: skin; the layer of the skin that controls what goes in and out of the cell
nucleolus: inside of the nucleus, provides the instructions on how to make proteins and other living things
cytoplasm: the liquid inside the cell, allows all chemical reactions in a cell to occur
mitochondria: energy; the powerhouse of the cell, it provides all the energy for a cell or living organism turns food into energy
nucleus: library; stores all the genetic material of the cell
Golgi body: transportation; transports finished proteins to other organelles outside the cell and helps modify proteins by putting two together or adding iron molecule
cell wall: support; this structure surrounds the cell and helps keep its shape, it is made of cellulose
chloroplast: makes food, creates a protein called chlorophyll changes sunlight into food
lysome: defends and repairs the defense and repair mechanism of the cell, attack foreign material inside the cell and helps repair the damaged parts
endoplasmic reticulum: factory, where proteins are assembled it comes in 2 forms, both the smooth and rough located around the nucleus and its folds give it increase surface area
vacuoles: storage, used to store water metabolic water and proteins, vacuoles in a plant cell are full of water and can take up to 90% of the cell and is used to hold the cell and plant of
prokaryotes: outer plasma membrane DNA nucleoid structure , and ribosomes
eukaryotes: membrane bound nucleus membrane bound organelles several rod shaped chromosomes
passive transport: no energy required, high to low transport
active transport: energy required low to high concentration
active diffusion: movement of molecules from a high to low concentration
hypertonic: having higher osmotic pressure than a particular fluid, typically body fluid or intracellular fluid
hypotonic: having lower osmotic pressure than a particular fluid
isotonic: a solution that has the same salt concentration as cells and blood
*What organelles can influence the direction of solutes and water that may impact osmosis?
-organelles that have an affect on osmosis would include the mitochondria chloroplasts and lysosomes
- the factors that determine the direction where molecules move is the concentration of water which determines the direction the molecules will move
-concentration gradient, light and dark
-brighter the light=faster rate of osmosis
*How do cells communicate if they are connected to each other?
-eukaryotic animal cells communicate between gap junctions
-eukaryotic plant cells communicate via the plasmamodesta
*How do they communicate when they are near each other?
-with the use of chemical signals, in which proteins or other molecules are produced by sending cell and are secreted from the cell and into the extra cellular space. they can "float" to the receiving cell
*How do they communicate when they are far from each other?
-signals are produced by specialized cells and released into the bloodstream which carries them to target cells in distant parts of the body
negative feedback: reduces change
positive feedback: amplifies change, will result more in a product
*How do nephrons communicate with each other?
-the use of neurotransmitters the activation and inhibiting of other neurons
*How can you tell if a molecule is oxidized or reduced?
-oxidation numbers represent the potential charge of an atom in its ionic state. If an atom's oxidation number decreases, it is reduced, if it increases, it is oxidized
*How does light, carbon, and pH affect the process?
-increasing light= increased rate of photosynthesis
-increase in carbon dioxide= increase the rate that carbon is incorporated into carbohydrate
-increased rate of photosynthesis
-as the plant's pH drifts away from optimal levels,photosynthesis decreases
calvin cycle: light independent reactions where carbon dioxide is turned to sugar which is the food needed for the plant to grow
electron transport chain photosynthesis: helps establish a proton gradient that powers ATP production and also stores energy in NADH