World War 1 Review Pt. 5
Peace without Victory: This idea was presented by Woodrow Wilson, who wanted to achieve long lasting peace. He believed that punishing Germany to extremes would not solve any problems and would only create more tension. As a result, he didn’t sign the Treaty of Versailles that condemned Germany with war guilt and complete reparations. He was proven right when Germany was fueled with revenge years later in World War II.
Marne River Battles: The battle was fought for six days in September of 1914, the first battle of World War I. The German forces had attempted to take France as part of the Schlieffen Plan which called for attacking France with full force and then Russia as to avoid a two front war. They were stopped about 40 miles from Paris, the French capital, and met the Allied forces in the valley of the Marne River. There, both sides dug trenches for the first time in the war and the location became known as the Western Front. Towards the end of the war when Russia withdrew, Germany was able to focus its efforts on the Western Front. They attacked France in March of 1918. However, the exhausted men and supplies were defeated by a counterattack from the Allies, including 140, 000 US soldiers, at the Marne River in July (Battle of the Marne II). 2 million more US troops arrived and were able to advance Germany, leading to the end of WWI. The Bulgarians surrendered first and the Ottoman Turks followed. Kaiser Wilhelm II of Austria stepped down on November 9, 1918.
Battle of Verdun and its importance: The Battle of Verdun took place in February of 1916. The Germans attacked to draw the French troops and weaken their numbers. Victory would mean a direct line to Paris. England saved Verdun by winning the Battle of the Somme. It was a bloody battle and neither side gained much. However, it had a positive impact on French morale.
Battle of the Somme and its importance: The Battle of the Somme was fought in July of 1916. The Allies wanted to liberate parts of France and Belgium that were occupied by Germany. France and Britain planned to attack first but Germany attacked Verdun, requiring all French reserves. The British attacked at Somme to distract the Germans from Verdun. The Germans won the first day, but the battle was a victory for France and England. The British were able to save the French allies at Somme and wore down the German troops. They also learned how to fight in trench warfare on the Western Front.
Battle of Tannenberg and its importance: The Battle of Tannenberg was fought in August of 1914 between Russia and Germany. Russia planned to follow the railway and invade East Prussia, but it was a German victory and wiped out the Russian army. From then on, Russia struggled and the victory proved to be a turning point for Germany.
What Lenin/Bolsheviks promised: Vladimir Ilych Lenin promised “peace, land and bread,” meaning that he would pull Russia out of the war, give peasants land, and provide food for the people of Russia. The Bolsheviks fought for an extreme left, Marxist government.
USA attitude about League of Nations: The USA opposed the League of Nations, due to its decision to give Germany war guilt and reparations. Woodrow Wilson wanted peace and felt that the league did not achieve that. The country chose to practice isolationism and stay out of European affairs to avoid conflict.
Causes of WWI: WWI causes included nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. The alliance system divided countries even before conflict and internal dissent and the lack of international laws contributed to division. The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand led to an ultimatum by Austria- Hungary, pushing war upon Serbia, and the Balkan Wars only added to the tension.
Why the USA joined the Allied side: The USA officially joined WWI in 1917. It joined the Allied side due to a common history with England in language, religion, trade, and legal system. They were also on good terms with France, who helped in the American Revolution. Another reason was that Germans destroyed US ships in unrestricted submarine warfare, regardless of the Sussex Pledge that promised to warn passengers before sinking ships. 128 American innocents were killed on the Lusitania. The catalyst that convinced Wilson to enter the war was the Zimmerman telegram in January of 1917. Germany gave an undeclared declaration of war, so the USA joined the Allied side.
Year Communism started in Russia: The Provisional Government was established after Czar Nikolas II abdicated the Russian throne. Although it was based on liberal and socialist ideas, the Bolsheviks, radical communist/ Marxists, refused to accept it. Led by Vladmir Lenin, the Bolsheviks revolted and gained control of Russia in October 1917.
Explain how the war broke out: WWI causes included nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. The alliance system divided countries even before conflict and internal dissent and the lack of international laws contributed to division. The Balkan Wars only added to the tension, due to religious and ethnic differences. Lastly, the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand led to an ulitmatum by Austria- Hungary, pushing war upon Serbia and starting World War I.