The 3G's= Gold, God and Glory
Why did the US look abroad?
Ideological And Religious Arguments
White Man's Burden
What problems did the US face in the Philippines and what was the outcome?
Emilio Aguinaldo led a revolt against the US trying to establish American control
US had to fight a full scale war to put down the revolt--4x as many men [soldiers] as in Spanish-American War
Used brutal measures to control Filipinos
Similar to what Spain had done
Anti-Imperialists were outraged and started protesting the war
1902- Had established a colonial government headed by an American governor
Filipino involvement was limited
Our rule was benign
Established new schools and roads, public health system, and an economy tied to the US
What are “spheres of influence”? Why did some in the business community reject them?
Regions dominated and controlled by an outside power
Businesses felt if the market were open and equal the US would dominate but with exclusive spheres of influence it would limit the opportunity to compete.
What was the Open Door Policy in China and how was it established?
All major colonial powers would have an equal trading privilege in China.
Secretary of State John Hay 1899:
No response, except Russia--said NO
Boxer Rebellion--Anti-Foreign Chinese
In China, Anti-Imperialist
Nationalists--Rose up --but put down by powers
US took no response as a Yes and promoted this informal and economic empire to gain own personal wealth for the US
Why did the Russo-Japanese war start? How did America mediate an outcome?
Japan attacked Russia because they were threatened by their possible expansion in Manchuria and Korea
Teddy Roosevelt got involved because they were worried a Japanese victory wouldn’t be good for the US either.
1905 Treaty of Portsmouth: Japa won control of Russia’s sphere of influence in Manchuria.
Half the Russian island of Sakhalin and recognized its dominance of Korea
Teddy Roosevelt made sure neither side was too victorious for US’ sake.
What role did the war play in Japanese-American relations?
Ruined with Japan
Anti-American riots broke out in Tokyo [Japan thought they would have gained a lot more (which they could have!)]
1906: San Francisco: Segregated Asian and white schools
Gentlemen’s Agreement: Japan agreed to deny passports to workers and US promised not to prohibit Japanese immigrants completely
Segregated was revoked
What did America feel was their role in Latin America?
Strict Big Brother: protected against Europe but US economic and political rights came 1st. US often ignored Latin America’s wished and interest
Was Puerto Rico given its independence after the Spanish American War?
Not freed: US controlled
Good: Improved transportation, sanitation and developed public health and education
Bad: Not given full political freedom
1917: Given citizenship and greater political rights but still territory.
No promise of statehood
Economy taken over by US investors left most Puerto Ricans poor.
Was Cuba given its independence after the Spanish American War? What is the Platt Amendment?
Cuba: didn’t gain independence as promised
Good: Modernized its financial system; built roads and public schools, and developed public health and sanitation programs
Eradicated yellow fever
Bad: US stepped up military government and only thought about withdrawing under Democratic pressure
1901: US began removing troops and drafting Constitution but enforced:
Platt Amendment: Restricted Cubans autonomy in diplomatic relations and internal financial policies.
Required Cuba to lease Naval bases to US and authorized US intervention to maintain order in China
Open Door Policy: Didn't apply in Latin American--US controlled this sphere and would use the military if needed.
What 2 obstacles were in the way of the US building a canal in South America?
Persuaded Great Britain to renounce its treaty and make joining deal with the US
Location: Panama? Nicaragua?
Panama already started by French who bought the rights to the canal and equipment for $40million
How did the US eventually gain permission to build in Panama?
1903: offered Colombia $10 million and $250,000 a year for 99 years
Colombia rejected it--wanted $40 million
Teddy Roosevelt, French Panamanians, and Philippe Bunau-Varilla [French official of Panama Canal Co.] helped revolt against Colombian government
Once overthrown US signed the same deal with Panama
Panama because US protectorate until 1939--Latin America was very unhappy with the US
Why did Roosevelt need to issue his “corollary” in Latin America and what was the reaction?
US could exercise police power to intervene in Latin American internal affairs
1905: Dominican Republic--needed help with debts
country in chaos---Great Britain threat
Latin America resented the US claim to authority so they created the Drago Doctrine: Prohibiting armed intervention to collect debts.
Explain Taft’s policy of Dollar Diplomacy. Who benefited more; America or Latin America?
Dollar Diplomacy: Replaced European interest
Promoted development and stability. Gain of profits for US bankers
“Dollars for bullets”
Increased American power and influence in Caribbean countries
Tied underdeveloped to US
The US increased trade by 50% but did not help improve conditions in Latin America.
What role did William Seward play in foreign affairs?
What role did James Blaine play in foreign affairs and how did Latin American nations reject his ideas?
How did the US affect Hawaii’s economy?
Explain the steps taken by the US to eventually gain control of Hawaii?
What was the Venezuelan Boundary dispute over and why was its resolution significant?
Why was Cuba revolting and how did the Spanish react?
Why were Americans so sympathetic to the Cuban rebels?
Name and describe each incident that led the US into war with Spain.
What terms did the US demand Spain agree to?
Why did McKinley declare war on Spain if they agreed to our terms?