IST195 Final Exam

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

Scientifically backed study method

spaced repetition


Review terms and definitions



Study with MC, T/F, and other questions


Practice Test

Take a test on your terms and definitions




SU Fall 2022

191 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (191)
is e-commerce or e-business bigger?
e-commerce is a part of e-business
venture capital
companies that raise money from a variety of investors and then invest a large sum of money in a project in its late stage. investors are looking to grow that business. plays a vital role in a startup's growth.
angel investors
people with excess money that want to takes a risk. ex: shark tank
types of funding
bootstrap, friends and family, loan, crowdfunding, angel investors, venture capital
bootstrap funding
you pay out of your own pocket
kickstarter, gofundme, etc
any process that a business organization conducts over a computer-mediated network
buying and selling of goods and services over the internet. a part of e-business
infrastructure as a service. renting a computer on the cloud, needs additional operating power. cloud hosting; having multiple servers to run your business
software as a service. uses software from the cloud. user has less control over it
IaaS for computing power
amazon web services. IaaS but specifically for storage
product manager
works on roadmap and features that will provide the most value to customers. creates a vision of where the product is going (product development)
project manager
works directly with the customer, manages relationships and expectations with clients. creates timeline for sprints
agile software development life cycle (SDLC)
instead of betting everything on a "big bang" launch, an agile team delivers their work in small, but consumable, increments. work in sprints, allowing the team to learn through experiences.
central processing unit (CPU)
the brain of any computing device aka the semiconductor. processes all the information. how fast a computer is dependent on how many CPUs there are.
the original internet protocol (IP) schematic when the internet was first created
a legitimate IPv4 address is made up of
4 sets of numbers, each between 0 and 255. ex:
the solution for when the internet ran out of numbers for IPv4
careers that exist within IT jobs
technical, operational, managerial
technical jobs
web/software developer, systems admin, network architect, information security, data scientist, database admin
operational jobs
help desk, computer support specialist, user experience/graphic design, tech sales/account management, quality assurance
managerial jobs
IT manager, applications project manager, product manager, systems/support manager, CIO/CTO director
the great resignation
the trend of employees voluntarily leaving their jobs, from spring 2021 to the present, primarily in the US. people want to work from home more and were chasing higher paying jobs because the market was hot. has changed the IT industry globally.
quiet quitting
people are only doing the bare minimum in their jobs instead of going above and beyond what is expected of them
4 soft skills to be successful
1. self awareness 2. listen and communicate 3. work with different types of people 4. empathy: infer what others are thinking and feeling
non-fungible token. a unique digital collectible that has value to it. uses blockchain to act as a non-duplicable digital certificate of ownership
a decentralized network of computers
smart contracts
establishes the terms of an agreement that are executed as code running on a blockchain. follows simple "if/when... then..." statements
benefits of smart contracts
1. speed, efficiency, accuracy 2. trust and transparency 3. security 4. cuts out intermediaries
characteristics of blockchain
secure, open source, decentralized
1000 bytes
1 kilobyte
1000 kilobytes/1 million bytes
1 megabyte
1000 megabytes/1 billion bytes
1 terabyte
1000 terabytes/1 trillion bytes
1 petabyte
8 bits
1 byte
a bit is either
1 or 0
what is an operating system?
provides user interface, manages resources, runs applications, file management
types of operating systems
1. embedded; ex: smartwatches, traffic lights, elevators, iOT 2. standalone; ex: desktop operating systems (macOS, Windows) 3. mobile operating systems; ex: iOS 16, Android 12
founder of Windows/Microsoft
Bill Gates
founder of MacOS/Apple
Steve Jobs
founder of Unix
Ken Thompson
founder of Linux
Linus Torvalds
open source OS
based on math. uses keys to encrypt messages
hides a message within a message. no encryption, just hiding. need to know what to look for in order to find the message
types of cryptography
symmetric and asymmetric
symmetric encryption
uses the same key to encrypt and decrypt
asymmetric encryption
uses two keys (public and private)
asymmetric decryption: jeff wants to send bob an encrypted message, so he uses _____ to encrypt and bob uses _____ to decrypt
bob's public key; bob's private key
random access memory chip that holds programs and data that the computer is presently processing. very volatile
what is the fastest memory source?
cache level 1 and level 2
universal serial bus. can connect up to 127 additional devices together with a single connector
new standard that uses USB 3.1; reversible. Apple was forced by the EU to change to this standard
USB 3.0 speed
5 gigabytes/second
USB 3.1 speed
10 gigabytes/second
CHIPS and Science Act of 2022
biden passed a law that will invest money into the domestic manufacturing of semiconductors in the US. presently, the largest manufacturer of semiconductors is Taiwan
Micron will open a semiconductor factory in Syracuse, bringing in high paying jobs and more jobs overall in CNY
residents of CA have the right to see what info is collected on them and ask for it to be deleted. the right to not have your data shared. structured after the GDPR
currently in Congress. covers all americans so that our data is protected and private
privacy law within the EU. the best privacy protection for consumers that exists globally
a box element that changes the style of a set of character or region. controls the margin and padding. not good for changing the style of a set of characters because it is a block (not inline), so it offsets everything in the next line
inline element that changes the style of a set of characters
every packet contains
source IP address, destination IP address, acknowledgement (TCP), sequence number, data within the packet
caesar shift
skip the key number of letters forward
knowt flashcard image
numbers as a key
uses a complex number as the key. for each letter, skip the first number forward. then repeat for each number in the key per letter.
words as a key
put the word at the beginning of the alphabet and eliminate the word's letters in the alphabet. don't repeat letters--should be 26 letters total
converting to binary code
256, 128, 64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, 1 ignore leading zeros pay attention to capital letters vs lowercase letters
app tracking transparency
apple's privacy update now requires apps to ask users if they can track you across apps and websites owned by other companies. 3rd party cookies track you and deliver targeted ads across multiple platforms
facebook algorithm
a program/code that determines what shows up in our news feed
facebook inventory
how much content: how many friends you have, how many times they've posted since you last logged in
facebook signals
considerations of content: how many interactions there are within a post. shows what is more popular
active signals
commenting, sharing, reacting
passive signals
clicking, watching, viewing/hovering; aka usual content consumption
demotion signals
false news (AI and 4rd party fact checkers), click gap (disproportionate amount of links from FB vs the organic web), clickbait, engagement bait, sensationalized health content
facebook predictions
based on signals; how likely you are to interact with a certain post
happens accidentally
deliberate intention to deceive
operator precedence
parentheses, negation, percent, exponents, multiply, divide, add, subtract, compare
built into excel: sum, count, average, if
evaluated by PEMDAS
conditional formatting
sets rules for cell formatting
vertical look up; retrieves info from an excel database based on a supplied instance of a unique identifier
delimited files
separates values in each row with a specific character ex: separate each student's grades with a comma
pivot tables
enables someone to quickly, accurately, and easily summarize and analyze large amounts of data
first party data
data directly collected from a consumer
second party data
data exchanged between two companies
third party data
data bought from third parties
data brokers
enriches data from other companies
3rd party cookies
track users from site to site and deliver targeted ads to these users
structured data
highly organized and manageable
unstructured data
structure that is not formally defined, like PDFs
semi-structured data
hybrid of structured and unstructured, like emails
geospatial data
includes information on positions
Vs of big data
volume (scale), variety (diff. forms), velocity (analysis of streaming data), veracity (uncertainty)
questions to ask about big data
what data do we have? how can we use it? what other data should we have? how can we drive value from data?
descriptive analytics
what happened and why
predictive analytics
what is likely to happen and why
discovery analytics
find something important without asking the question
prescriptive analytics
culmination of all 3 that shows what the best solution is
a tool many businesses use to track, analyze, and display data
data warehouse
internet based storage; taking islands of data and transforming, merging, and purging it to become uniform to then produce reports and dashboards
apple introduces the macintosh in a commerical that debuted "super bowl sunday;" credited with current era of super bowl advertising, where people watch the ads as much as they watch the game
operating systems
the operating system is the primary software that manages all the hardware and other software on a computer
open source software
published and made available to the public for anybody to use for free
benefits of open source
social: collaboration, creates communities, uses a community to make a product better, creativity; freedom (developers can decide direction); transparency; security
make money with open source
be a developer, consult, support, subscription, extra features/functionality, paid certification, advertising
-most successful open source project -Androids, DVRs, TVs, game consoles, routers, etc. are built on Linux -Ubuntu: most popular Linux version. main goal = security; makes money off of support
OS developed by Ken Thompson in the late 1960s for servers. a multiuser, multitasking OS that is more expensive, requires a high level of technical knowledge, and is harder to install, maintain, and upgrade
Steve Ballmer, Microsoft CEO (April 2007)
"the iPhone has no chance" Ballmer was wrong, and now Microsoft is the one who failed to break into the smartphone market
4 main computing functions
accept input, process input, produce output, storage
input to output data
becomes information
the main circuit board on a computer; all communication is wired through the motherboard and all components are connected
memory cache
improves processing by acting as a temporary high speed holding area between the memory and the CPU
7 bit (128) values; covers 0-9, A-Z, a-z, and punctuation in the English language
universal character set, more than 100k characters, includes ASCII + other languages + emojis
radio frequency identification that transmits the identity of an object or person wirelessly using radio waves
near field communications; a subset of RFID that requires 2 way communication within 5 cm. popular for payment methods
bluetooth low energy, continuous low power energy, uses beacons
active RFID tags
battery powered, has improved operating range, costs more than passive tags, range>100m
passive RFID tags
doesn't need battery power, activates itself and transmits data using power generated by radio waves from the RFID reader, range is < 3m
apple airtags
pings every phone if you lose something and alerts the tag to hone in on the location of the item. uses beacons
food safety
RFID can track the food's location at every point and be recorded with blockchain to record each thing that happens to the food
cloud computing
the on-demand delivery of computing power, database, storage, applications, and other IT resources via the internet with pay-as-you-go pricing
simulating a hardware platform, operating system, storage, and network resources. most important part of cloud computing
benefits of cloud computing
agility, elasticity, cost
IOT segments
wearables, smart home devices, smart cities, smart industry
information value loop
create, communicate, aggregate, analyze, act
pittsburgh surtrac
using software for traffic control
types of data
public, enterprise (financial, suid, internal comms, contracts), confidential (ssn, dl#, educational records)
data breach
when a combination of name and other identifying information/confidential information (personally identifiable information/PII) is hacked and released
nation states
interested in intellectual property/sabotage
interested in brand damage, ideological views
interested in data destruction
interested in financial gain
3rd party cookies
generated by a 3rd party, typically an advertising company, that is affiliated with the website you're visiting (tracking cookies)
attempts to trick internet users into thinking a fake but official looking website/email is legit
a type of hack that prevents users from accessing their system and the hacker makes the user pay to get access back
faking a person
the research project funded by the department of defense that led to the internet
internet protocol suite
application, transport, network, link, physical
hypertext transfer protocol is successful because
it makes a connection, http requests a file, html file responds, WEB BROWSER CLOSES CONNECTION
transmission control protocol. guarantees the delivery of information
internet protocol. defines how data is routed across the internet