Unit 4-5: Lessons 11-14

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Caroline and Creole Affairs
-A ship called the Caroline was carrying supplies to insurgents when it was attacked by British forces, which set it on fire -The Creole Affair was an uprising by a group of slaves who were in the process of being transported in the ship, the Creole
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
-the Treaty resolved a number of border disputes between the US and the British North American colonies -also banned the slave trade (on the ocean)
-a policy of favoring native inhabitants as opposed to immigrants -ironic bc they themselves were immigrants
a nativist political party
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
-Supreme Court says that trade unions are not conspiracies against trade -Very exceptional since SC doesn't usually support Labor Unions
Gabriel Prosser
-An African-American preacher who claimed that salvation was possible for all -planned an uprising in 1800 in Virginia -never went through because someone ratted the uprising out
Denmark Vesey
-free slave in south carolina -planned an uprising to seize Charleston in 1822 -never went through because someone ratted them out
Nat Turner
-Nat Turner Rebellion in 1831→ led an uprising that killed over 60 Virginias EFFECTS: -Caused the slave codes to tighten -Owners of slaves slept with pistols -The state killed many of slaves for conspiring -Hung and skinned Turner - used as propaganda to make people support pro-slavery movements
Frederick Douglass
-Former slave who escaped -Most likely the plantation owner’s son but was never allowed to know -Meets with Garrison and connected over their beliefs -shares his experience with people which caused an uprise in the anti-slavery movement -Splits with Garrison bc of disagreement over the constitution
William Lloyd Garrison
- Did not believe in gradual change -IMMEDIATE EMANCIPATION WITHOUT COMPENSATION!!!! -Had his own paper called “The Liberator” -Organized NE Anti-Slavery Society in 1832 -Believed that you have to change the hearts and minds of the people and not just the laws→ if just the laws, nothing will change -Wanted rights for women which caused fewer people to support him
Theodore Dwight Weld
-wrote "American Slavery As It Is" -was married to Angelina Grimke
Harriet Tubman
-Former Slave who escaped -helped in the underground railroads to aid escaping slaves
Harriet Beecher Stowe
-wrote the anti-slavery book, Uncle Tom's Cabin -based the book on the experience of slaves -expressed the ugliness of slavery
Grimke Sisters
-Abolitionists and women's rights advocates -became first female agents of the American Anti-Slavery Society - clergymen reacted against them by creating the “Pastoral Letter”
Sojourner Truth
-"Ain't I a woman"
a person who offers an argument in defense of something controversial (slavery)
John Calhoun - “Positive good”
-both "sides" of slavery in the south benefited - the slaves got "civilized" in a way they wouldn't have if they weren't enslaved
Manifest Destiny
The idea that it was the divine mission of the Americans to expand
Steven/Stephen Austin
-Steve Austin gets huge land grants and brings settlers to take land Mexico's Response: -MAD BC AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS CALL THEMSELVES TEXANS -ARMY TIME
People who arranged for the settlement of land in Texas during the 1800s, they had cheap land as long as they obeyed Mexican law
-4000 men led by Santa Anna trap Texans at Alamo - American volunteers were slain by Santa Anna in 1836. "Remember the Alamo" became a battle cry in support of Texan independence.
Lone Star Republic
-American immigrants to the Mexican territory of Texas rebelled and established an independent state in 1836
Bear Flag Republic
-Short-lived California republic -established by local American settlers who revolted against Mexico.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-Mexico gave the U. S. California and parts of the future states of NM, AR, UT, CO, WY -U. S. gave Mexico $15,000,000 -ended Mexican War
Oregon Trail
A historical overland route to the western United States extending from various cities on the Missouri River to the Oregon Country and later Oregon Territory
James Polk
Polk gets Democrat nomination with his commitment to TERRITORIAL EXPANSION
54 40’ or Fight!
-Democrats want all of Oregon, but Polk is willing compromise -Dec 1845 Polk shows his annoyance and gives them one year to change – 54’40 OR FIGHT! -Compromise at the 49th parallel
Gold Rush
- in California -caused increased # of settlers which led CA to be admitted into the Union as a free state
Gadsden Purchase
-A small tiny land that was a part of the Mexican territory -Bought in 1853 for $10 million (Pierce) -allows for the building of a transcontinental railroad
Ostend Manifesto
-A group of people wanted to purchase Cuba since it’s good land for planting cotton and sugar -NORTH would’ve been mad so it was kept a secret -When they found out, N backlashes so the whole Manifesto was rejected
Walker Mission
-Walker wanted to build a slave empire -Claimed to be “president” of Nicaragua→ they were very angry -They kicked him out but he returned -The British turned him in and the Nicaragua people killed him
Wilmot Proviso
-stated that slavery can’t be in any of the new territories -Passed two times in the House, failed in the Senate -shows House is mostly anti but Senate is mostly pro-slavery -Used the words of the North-West Ordinance
Free-Soil Party
-didn't want the spread of slavery inside the territories
Compromise of 1850
5 parts of the compromise: 1) California comes in as a free state 2) texas gets money to give up their border claims 3) Washington, D.C. can’t be used for the slave trade, but can have slavery 4) New Mexico and Utah could use popular sovereignty to enter the union 5)A STRICTER Fugitive Slave Act is created Overall aftermath: -it was fair since no side was fully satisfied with the comp.
Henry Clay
proposes the compromise of 1850
Daniel Webster
-delivered a famous to support the compromise
Stephen Douglas
-(popular sovereignty) takes over from Clay -Says that people will never agree to the compromise as a whole so the acts should be passed separately
Popular Sovereignty
letting settlers vote if their state is going to be free or slave state
Kansas-Nebraska Act
-Originally, the transcontinental railroad was supposed to be in the south -Douglas wants a northern railroad instead of a southern railroad To satisfy the south, he passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act: -Split Kansas and Nebraska and let its settlers decide if the state is going to be free or slave state (popular sovereignty) -This territory was above the 36 30’ line= meant to be a free state -HAPPY south Bleeding Kansas→ people ZOOMED to Kansas, so they can try to vote for Kansas to be free or slave! -There were 2 capitals of Kansas and neither of them recognized the other as the rightful capital
Bleeding Kansas
-the N-K act caused a political crisis in Kansas -Rival governments had been established in Kansas -one backed by pro slavery, the other by antislavery groups
Pottawatomie Massacre
-John Brown orchestrated the murder of five proslavery settlers along Pottawatomie Creek. AFtermath: -Four months of partisan violence and depredation ensued.
John Brown
Pottawatomie Massacre
Brooks vs. Sumner Caning
-Sumner was an abolitionist in the Senate -spoke up against slavery and brought up Brooks' uncle -Brooks repeatedly beat up Sumner with his cane in a Senate ChamberProhibits free blacks from entering KS to satisfy Free-Soilers Contains clause which confirms slavery of the 300 already there – voters have no choice on whether to exclude Voters can vote for a clause that prohibits the entry of more slaves Voters can’t vote on overall body of Constitution, so many decline to vote; this allows it to be overwhelmingly ratified by slave supporters and allows the future entrance of slaves -seen as a hero for doing so -caused brain injury
LeCompton Constitution
-Prohibits free blacks from entering Kansas to satisfy Free-Soilers -Contains clause which confirms slavery of the 300 already there – voters have no choice on whether to exclude -Voters can vote for a clause that prohibits the entry of more slaves -Voters can’t vote on overall body of Constitution, so many decline to vote; this allows it to be overwhelmingly ratified by slave supporters and allows the future entrance of slaves
American Colonization Society
-Started in 1817 -Goal was to bring back slaves into Africa -Organized the first permanent settlement in Africa (Liberia) in 1822 -Generations of people have been having kids in America so to move them back was to misplace them -VERY limited success in convincing people to migrate -Declines with radical abolitionists entering