Social Psychology: Chapter 8-10 Review

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Two or more people who for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence each other and perceive one another as "we" or "us"
Reasons for Groups:
- Need to affiliate - Need to achieve - Need for social identity
Functions of Groups:
- Belonging - Intimacy - Generativity - Support - Influence - Exploration
To be included in an interpersonal network, providing members with sense of inclusion and security
To be in proximity, for warm, supportive, loving relationships with others
To be more productive and efficient than as a member than as an individual, accomplishing tasks that could not be completed alone
To be aided with minor/major life crisis by providing assistance, emotional and tangible resources
To exercise and apply social power and __, offering individuals the means to __ greater numbers of individuals
To be provided with information, new ideas and new experiences, providing opportunities for learning
Social Facilitation
Strengthening of dominant responses in presence of others, boosting performance on easy tasks and well learned tasks EX) Home Court Advantage
Social Loafing
People exerting less effort when they pool their efforts towards a common goal than when they're individually accountable
Causes of Social Loafing:
- Diffusion of responsibility - Reduced evaluation apprehension
Loss of self awareness; a self conscious state in which attention focuses on oneself and makes people more sensitive to their own attitudes and dispositions
Risky Shift Phenomena
AKA Group Polarization; enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies, a strengthening of member's average tendency
Explaining Polarization:
- Informational Influence - Normative Influence - Pluralistic Ignorance
Consensus in group decisions that suppresses dissent in the interest of group harmony
*CAUSES of GroupThink:
- Cohesion of the group - Isolation of group from dissenting viewpoints - Directive leader/Dictative leader - Decision stress
*SYMPTOMS of GroupThink
- Illusion of invulnerability - Strong belief in group's morality - Rationalization - Group has stereotyped view of opponent - Conformity pressure - Self censorship - Illusion of unamity - Mind guards
Difference between Self Censorship and Mind Guards:
Self Censorship is not saying your opinion because it doesn't align with the group. Mind Guards are people who knowingly withhold information that could add to or dissuade the argument.
Ways to prevent GroupThink:
- Appointing a Devil's Advocate - Impartiality - Encourage critical evaluation - Occasionally divide the group, then reunite to air differences - Welcome input from outside experts - Call a second-chance meeting
Influences of the Minority are strongest when:
- Consistency in presentation of the message - Self confidence in message - Defections from the majority
Task Leaders
Organize work, set standards, focus on goals
Social Leaders
Delegate authority, encouraging input from the group
Transformational Leaders
Inspires followers at a deep personal level; charisma
Group Privilege
Unearned, favored, State acquired power by a group or groups in a society
Prejudice equals __
Stereotypes equals __
Discrimination equals __
Social attitudes and discrimination towards people of a given sex
Social attitudes and discriminatory Behavior people of a given race
In-group Favoritism Phenomenon
Develops socially to where we have favoritism to the group you are assigned without any other connections
Social Dominance Orientation
Motivation to have one's group dominate other social groups
Values and attitudes learned from family and culture
Scapegoat Theory (Displaced Aggression)
Taking anger and frustration out on the cause of the frustration if possible and if unsuccessful displacing that anger towards a less-threatening target, like minorities
Realistic Group Conflict Theory
Prejudice arises from groups competing for scarce resources
Social Identity Theory
Feeling superior to others
In-group Bias
Favor towards one's own group
Out-group Homogeneity Effect
View out-group members as more similar to one another than in group members
Just-world Phenomenon
Belief people get what they deserve and deserve what they get, contributes to victim-blaming
Stereotype Threat
Proposition that stigmatized group members are aware that they are stereotyped and when in achievement settings they fear confirming those stereotypes
Physical and/or verbal behaviors intended to cause harm
Biological Theories of Aggression:
Genetic Factors Instinct Theory Neural Influences Biochem Influences
Media Impact on Aggressive Behavior:
Distorts perceptions of sexual reality Increases aggression against women Desensitizes us to violence Provides a social script Alters perception of the world Cognitive priming of aggression Disinhibits viewers Increased arousal Decrease prosocial behavior Decrease empathy/helping
Group Contexts Enabling Aggression:
Diffusion of responsibility Polarization Social Identity Reduced inhibition Less self awareness Less evaluation apprehension
Predictors of Aggressive Behavior:
Male Aggressive prone personality Alcohol use Violence viewing Anonymity Provocation Presence of weapons Group interaction
Weapons Effect
The mere presence of weapons increases aggressive thoughts and behaviors
Aggression Cues
Typically a physical object or context associated with aggressive acts that by existing increases violent thoughts/behaviors
Acting aggressively or even viewing aggression is an effective way to purge angry and aggressive feelings
Social Learning Approach
Suggests that social behavior is learned by observing and imitating the behavior of others