UW PSYCH 101 FINAL (dr. andelin)

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psych 101 final

372 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (372)
location of working memory
prefrontal cortex
location of consolidation and spatial memory
location of implicit procedural memory
location of implicit memory: fear processing
location of explicit memory
temporal lobe
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events preceding a trauma
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events following a trauma
semantic memory
memory for knowledge and general facts
retroactive interference
access to older memories is impaired by newer memories
proactive interference
access to newer memories is impaired by older memories
causes of distortion
memory bias, flashbulb memories, misattribution, suggestibility, false memories
long-term potentiation (LTP)
enhanced activity that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons
context-dependent memory
the environment in which learning takes place provides a cue that aids your access to the information
state-dependent memory
being in the same internal state as when you learned the information provides a cue that helps you access the information
prospective memory
remembering events/obligations that will happen in the future
an internal representation of the world; an organization of concepts and actions that can be revised by new information about the world
network of association
an item's distinct features are linked in a way that helps us identify the item
three stages of memory
1. encoding 2. storage 3. retrieval
latent learning
learning without reinforcement
vicarious conditioning
learn to engage in a behavior or not after seeing others being rewarded or punished for that action
operant conditioning
learning by reinforcement
non-associative learning
individual learns about a stimulus
a type of non-associative learning that occurs when a person is exposed to a stimulus for a long time, or repeatedly. the individual habituates meaningless events around them - events that are not helpful or relevant.
a type of non-associative learning that occurs when an individual is exposed to a stimulus for a long time or repeatedly and then has an increased behavioral response.
activation-synthesis model
dreams may have no meaning at all. they represent random activity from the brainstem that is sent to the cortex, where this information is synthesized into a story or explanation for these random inputs and memory consolidation.
freud's opinion of dreams
dreams provide insight to subconscious thoughts and they constitute a disguised attempt at wish fulfillment. this cannot be proven.
sociocognitive theory
hypnotized people aren't in an altered state, but they behave in a way that is expected.
disassociation theory
hypnosis causes an altered state in which awareness is separated
dual processing
the simultaneous processing of information at both the conscious and unconscious levels
suprachiasmatic nucleus
pair of cell clusters in the hypothalamus that controls circadian rhythms
brainwaves in the normal waking state
beta waves
brainwaves just before sleep
alpha waves
global workspace model
no singular brain region is responsible for "awareness"
N3 waves
delta waves
REM waves
beta waves
N1 waves
theta waves
N2 waves
theta waves
three steps to thinking critically
1. what is the claim that i'm being asked to accept? 2. what evidence (if any) is provided to support the claim? 3. given the evidence, what are the most reasonable conclusions about the claim - should it be accepted or rejected?
wilhelm wundt
opened first psychology lab in 1879 in germany
spearheaded by wilhelm wundt, margaret washburn, edward titchener. used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind. belief that the conscious experience can be broken down into underlying parts
spearheaded by william james and mary calkins; based on darwin's theory of evolution. advantageous variations are more likely to be genetically passed down and obsolete variations tend to die out. focused on adaptive purposes served by behavior & mental processes.
psychoanalytic theory
freud's belief that thoughts & actions are influenced by unconscious mental forces. "talking theory" like mental therapy. psychological disorders were thought to be caused by conflict between unconscious thoughts vs acceptable behavior
humanistic psychology
spearheaded by maslow & rogers. investigates how people grow to become happier & more fulfilled. focuses on people's innate, basic goodness.
cognitive psychology
spearheaded by miller & neisser: argued that learning was not as simple as behaviorists believed. study of how people think, learn, & remember.
five domains of modern psychology
biological, mental & physical health, cognitive, developmental, social & personality
descarte: mental & physical experiences are distinct & separate
spearheaded by john b. watson & b.f. skinner: describes behavior in response to environmental stimuli
six learning strategies (IMPACT)
improving (growth mindset) monitoring (plan & check progress) practicing (repeated, short sessions) attending (selective attention, ignore distractions) connecting (use cues) thinking deeply (elaboration)
institutional review boards (IRBs)
guardians of ethical guidelines, composed of administrators, legal advisors, trained scholars, & members of the community
four ethical standards
privacy, confidentiality, informed consent, protection from harm
case studies
method of research advantage: provides a lot of data about a specific case disadvantage: can be very subjective
observational studies
method of research advantage: can be very valuable in early stages of research disadvantage: observer bias, reactivity (people act differently if they know they're being watched)
method of research advantage: easy to administer, cheap, fast disadvantage: self-report bias, people may not recall information accurately
correlational methods
method of research: using two or more naturally-occurring methods to determine the strength of the relationship between them. advantages: rely on naturally-occurring relationships that may take place in a real-world setting disadvantages: can't demonstrate causal relationships, can't show the direction of the cause/effect relationship (directionality problem). an unidentified variable may be involved (third-variable problem)
experimental methods
method of research: examine how one variable that is manipulated affects another variable. determines causality. advantages: provides control over independent (manipulated) variable, avoids directionality problem disadvantages: manipulating something other than the independent variable can affect the dependent variable & lead to inaccurate conclusions. often take place in an artificial setting.
potential third variable
capacity of the brain to develop new neuropathways
three ways of clearing neurotransmitters from the synapse
reuptake, enzyme degradation, diffusion
reabsorbing neurotransmitters into the presynaptic neuron
enzyme degradation
the breaking down of neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters float away
spatial resolution
determines where in the brain an action is occurring (i.e. PET scan, fMRI)
temporal resolution
determines when the brain is active; time-sensitive. (i.e. EEG, MEG)
causal resolution
determines whether something causes a specific brain behavior (i.e. transcranial magnetic stimulation)
three basic functions of the nervous system
1) receives sensory input, 2) processes sensory information by paying attention to it, perceiving it, & remembering it, 3) responds to the information by acting on it.
central nervous system
consists of nerve cells in the brain & spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
consists of the nerve cells outside of the brain & spinal cord
short, branch-like extensions of the cell body that receive signals from neighboring neurons
cell body
information from other neurons is collected & combined
transmits electrical impulses; vary tremendously in length.
terminal buttons
located at the end of the axon; knoblike structure
where communication occurs between neurons
chemicals of communication that travel to the receiving neuron's dendrites
three phases of neural communication
1) transmission, 2) reception, 3) integration
transmission phase
electrical signals travel along the axon and neurotransmitters are released from the terminal buttons in the synapse
reception phase
dendrites of other neurons receive chemical signals
integration phase
neurons assess & integrate the incoming signals
resting state
electrical charge inside the neuron is more negative than the outside
sodium ions
ions that enter & make the electrical charge inside the neuron more positive; if enough stimulation occurs, action potential is fired
action potential
message fires down the axon to release neurotransmitters. either fires or doesnt, no difference in strength. quickly repeated messages are more important
refractory period
returns the neuron back to its resting state using a sodium potassium pump (pumps out sodium & pumps in potassium). during this period, the neuron is less likely to respond to incoming stimulation
myelin sheath
fatty casing that insulates the axon, making fast neurocommunication possible
presynaptic neuron
the neuron that sends the signal
the neuron that receives the signal
excitatory signals
signals the excite the neuron. if the total amount of input exceeds a certain threshold, an action potential is fired (depolarization)
inhibitory signals
signals that inhibit the neuron & decrease the likelihood of firing an action potential (hyperpolarization)
selective communication
communicate with other specific neurons, forming networks
neurotransmitter involved in motor control over muscles, attention, memory, learning, & sleeping
neurotransmitter involved in arousal & alertness "wake-up fairy" !!
neurotransmitter involved in emotional states, impulse control, dreaming
neurotransmitter involved in reward & motivation, motor control over voluntary movement
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
neurotransmitter involved in inhibition of action potentials, anxiety reduction, intoxication through alcohol
neurotransmitter involved in pain reduction & reward
neurotransmitter involved in the enhancement of action potentials, learning, & memory
drugs that enhance to actions of neurotransmitters (i.e. nicotine, caffeine)
drugs that inhibit the actions of neurotransmitters
structures of the hindbrain
medulla, pons, cerebellum
hindbrain structure involved in breathing, heart rate, and other survival mechanisms
hindbrain structure involved in sleep, arousal, left-right body movement coordination
hindbrain structure involved in motor learning, coordination, & balance
substantia nigra
midbrain structure involved in initiation of voluntary motor activity
structures of the forebrain (subcortical structures)
thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala
"the messenger" forebrain structure involved in sending sensory information (except smell)
forebrain structure involved in regulations of body functions (like sleep & temperature) & motivation (like hunger, thirst, sex)
forebrain structure involved in spatial navigation, the formation of new memories, and episodic memory
forebrain structure involved in the association of emotions with experiences. rapid evaluation of sensory input -> emotional responses to external stimuli
cortical structures
occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes
occipital lobes
cortical structure involved in vision
parietal lobes
cortical structure involved in touch & spatial information
temporal lobes
cortical structure involved in hearing & memory
frontal lobes
cortical structure involved in planning, movement, & complex thought
early idea that bumps on head could be measured to explain personality
somatic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that transmits signals to and from the central nervous system through nerves
autonomic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that automatically regulates the body's internal environment (i.e. heart, sweat glands)
parasympathetic nervous system
a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system & part of the greater peripheral nervous system, that returns the body to a resting state (heart rate decreases, respiration decreases, pupils contract, digestion increases)
sympathetic nervous system
a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system & part of the greater peripheral nervous system, that prepares the body for action (heart rate increases, respiration increases, pupils dilate, digestion decreases)
endocrine system
communication network that influences many aspects of the body, including mental activity and behavior. works together with the nervous system, but uses slower method of communicating by releasing chemicals from glands.
all genes, set since conception
observable physical & psychological characteristics that can change
cerebral cortex/gray matter
external nerve fibers on the outside of the brain
corpus callosum
connects the two hemispheres of the brain & allows communication between them.
splitting the corpus callosum
used in treatment-resistant epilepsy: seizures disappeared but personality & intellect remained largely intact. visual information-sharing ended. behavior & agency were affected
left hemisphere of the brain
controls the right side of the body as well as speech
right hemisphere of the brain
controls the left side of the body
double-blind procedure
both the research participants & research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the participants have received the placebo or the treatment
mind & body work together & are inseparable
global workspace model
no one area of the brain is responsible for general awareness - your total experience results from the simultaneous activity of all the different brain regions
two-track mind
low mental road uses automatic processing that is fast & doesn't require a lot of resources but is unaware of most details. high mental road uses controlled processing that requires more attention and makes you very aware of your experiences, details, and mental activity.
inattentional blindness
failure to be aware of visual information when one's attention is directed elsewhere
subliminal perception
the processing of information by sensory systems without a person's conscious awareness. has little to no effect on complex thinking such as voting or purchasing behavior, but works well on people's motivational states
circadian rhythm
the regulation of biological cycles (brain activity, psychological processes, sleep, body temp, etc) into regular, daily patterns that are influenced by light & dark. maintained by multiple brain regions. light information is sent to the suprachaismatic nucleus in the hypothalamus, which sends signals to the pineal gland in the endocrine system, which influences the release of melatonin
beta waves
brain waves during normal waking state of consciousness
alpha waves
brain waves that occur during deep focus or relaxation
theta waves
brain waves that occur during N1 sleep
N1 sleep
drifting off; stage before true sleep. consciousness & mental activity starts to decrease. theta waves.
N2 sleep
sleep stage in which breathing becomes more regular. K-complexes and sleep spindles occur
triggered by abrupt noises; signals from brain mechanisms to shut out the outside world & keep you asleep.
N3 sleep
sleep stage marked by large delta waves. the brain is still processing outside stimuli to scan for potential danger. it's hard to wake someone in this stage, and if they do wake up, they are quite disoriented.
REM sleep
sleep stage in which brain is very active but the muscles are paralyzed. also called paradoxical sleep for this reason.
sleep cycle
N1 -> N2 -> N3 -> N2 -> N1 -> REM ... typically repeats 5x per night
REM dreams
dreams that are bizarre and lack logic because the motivation, reward, emotion, & visual association parts of the brain are active, but the pre-frontal cortex (reasoning & logic) is less active.
activation synthesis
theory that dreams are the result of the brain's attempts to make sense of random brain activity by combining this random activity with stored memories
three reasons that sleep is adaptive & beneficial
restorative theory: sleep lets the brain & body rest, restore, & repair itself. circadian rhythm theory: sleep has evolved to preserve animals & humans from harm, because darkness is the most dangerous, so sleep keeps them quiet & inactive. consolidation theory: neural networks that are wired together during the waking period are consolidated during sleep.
sleep spindles
large bursts of brain activity that occur during N2 sleep. research demonstrates that they are important in memory consolidation
effects of long term sleep deprivation
decreased mental abilities, compromised immune system, microsleeps, messed up hunger cues, negative mental health
REM rebound
occurs when you finally sleep after a long period of sleep deprivation, your body enters REM sleep more quickly & will have more REM dreams than usual
sleep disorder characterized by the repeated inability to sleep. common in women with anxiety
sleep apnea
sleep disorder characterized by halted breathing for short periods because of throat closure, and the individual must wake to gasp for air. people suffering with this disorder are typically unaware of these awakenings & their condition
sleep disorder characterized by excessive sleepiness during normal waking hours, individuals sometimes go limp & collapse.
REM behavior disorder
sleep disorder characterized by the absence of muscle paralysis in REM sleep. individual acts out their REM dreams. caused by a neurological deficit.
sleep disorder characterized by sleepwalking. occurs during N3 sleep
sociocognitive theory of consciousness
people act in the way that they are expected to act during hypnosis
theory that hypnosis creates an altered state of consciousness
hypnosis analgesia
hypnosis for pain reduction
drugs that increase behavior & mental activity (i.e. amphetamines, meth, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine). affect the neurotransmitters dopamine & norepinephrine
drugs that decrease behavior & mental activity (i.e. anti-anxiety drugs, alcohol). affect the neurotransmitter GABA
drugs that reduce pain & bring pleasure (i.e. heroin, morphine, codeine). affects endorphins
drugs that change perceptions, thoughts, & emotions (i.e. LSD, mushrooms, MDMA (which is also a stimulant), cannabis (which can also be a stim/depres.)). affects seratonin, dopamine, norepinephrine
substance use disorder
occurs because drug use often affects dopamine activity. any behavior that increases dopamine is likely to be repeated because it is a reinforcer. can be genetically predisposed through inheriting a cluster of characteristics.
non-associative learning
person learns about a stimulus
a type of non-associative learning in which an individual is exposed to a stimulus for a long time (or repeatedly), and that event becomes less noticeable. typically happens when a stimulus is neither harmful nor rewarding.
a type of non-associative learning in which an individual is exposed to a stimulus for a long time (or repeatedly) and then has an increased behavioral response. leads to heightened preparation to respond in an important situation
associative learning
understand how two or more pieces of information are related
classical conditioning
a type of associative learning in which an individual learns that one stimulus predicts another
operant conditioning
a type of associative learning in which an individual learns that a behavior leads to a particular outcome
observational learning
a type of learning by watching others in which an individual learns to change a behavior after watching someone else engage in that behavior.
a type of learning by watching others in which an individual learns to imitate a behavior.
vicarious conditioning
a type of learning by watching others in which an individual learns to engage in a behavior or not, after seeing others being rewarded or punished for that action.
the gradual formation of a learned association between a conditioned stimulus (Pavlov's metronome) and an unconditioned stimulus (food) to produce the conditioned response (salivation)
conditioned response (salivation) weakens if the conditioned stimulus (metronome) is presented many times without the unconditioned stimulus (food).
spontaneous response
extinguished response reemerges after conditioned stimulus is represented
stimulus generalization
when stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus (similar to the metronome) produce the conditioned response (salivation)
stimulus discrimination
learns to differentiate between two similar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus (i.e. food) and one is not
positive punishment
adding a task or thing as a punishment
negative punishment
taking something away as a punishment
positive reinforcement
adding something as a reward to encourage a behavior to be repeated
negative reinforcement
taking something away as a reward to encourage a behavior to be repeated
behavior modification
the use of operant conditioning techniques (secondary reinforcement) to replace bad behaviors with good
secondary reinforcers
reinforcers that are not necessary for survival
primary reinforcers
reinforcers that are necessary for survival (food, water, safety, social support)
latent learning
learning without reinforcement
three stages of memory
1) encoding, 2) storage, 3) retrieval
stage of memory in which the brain changes information into a meaningful neural code that it can use
stage of memory that lets you maintain the information in your brain
stage of memory that is the process of accessing the information later
human memory is imperfect
the brain is more complicated than a computer & changes over time the brain is unique - you remember information that is relevant to you & process it from your perspective the human memory sometimes fails
sensory storage
this type of memory storage allows perceptions of the world to appear as a unified stream of information rather than discrete sensations. when you close your eyes, your perception of the world stays put. memories are encoded in the sense they were experienced - usually auditory but can be visual or semantic. this type of storage lasts for less than 4 seconds
short-term storage
type of memory storage that maintains information for immediate use. encoded primarily auditory, but could also be visual or semantic. duration lasts for under 20 seconds, but can be extended infinitely with working memory manipulation. capacity for 7 items plus or minus 2. working memory also aids capacity
long-term storage
type of memory storage that stores information for access & use at a later time. encoding is primarily semantic, also visual & auditory. capacity & duration is probably unlimited.
maintenance rehearsal
repeating information over and over in an auditory fashion to acheive shallow memory encoding
elaborative rehearsal
processing information in a way that is meaningful to you in order to acheive deep encoding
network of association
an item's distinct features are linked in a way that helps us identify the item (apple is red so it's related to firetrucks, blood, stop sign - apple is a fruit so it's related to cherries, pears, bananas)
retrograde amnesia
people lose memories they already had
losing the ability to store most types of information in long-term storage
anterograde amnesia
people lose the ability to form new memories
explicit memory
long-term storage of conscious memories that can be verbally described
episodic memory
type of explicit memory about personal experiences and when and where they happened
semantic memory
type of explicit memory that involves the knowledge of facts independent of personal experience
implicit memory
memories that you aren't conscious of (includes classical conditioning, procedural memory)
procedural memory
type of implicit memory involving motor skills, behavior, habits, & knowing how to do things
long-term potentiation (LTP)
enhanced activity that results from the strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons
memory consolidation
process by which immediate memories become lasting memories. occurs when new neural connections are created and prior neural connections get stronger. happens in the medial temporal lobes including the hippocampus
where memories are stored
in the particular cortical brain regions that engaged in the perception of the information - i.e. visual information stored in visual processing area
when you are in the same place/context where you learned the information, the environment provides a cue that aids your access to the information
when your internal state is the same as when you learned the information, your state provides a cue that aids your access to the information
prospective memory
memory that is future-oriented
retroactive interference
access to older memories is impaired by newer memories
proactive interference
access to newer memories is impaired by older memories
temporary inability to access information that is stored in the brain. often occurs because of interference from similar words, increases with age