The last czar of Russia, weak leader, suffered an embarrassing defeat in the Russo-Japanese War
Who was Czarina Alexandra?
Wife of Nicholas II, manipulated by Rasputin because of her son's illness
Who was Prince Alexis Romanov?
Heir of the throne, born with hemophilia, believed to be a 'political problem'
Who was Rasputin?
Healer, took care of the czar's son, made key decisions in the government, wounded the reputations of the Romanov family
Who was Michael Romanov?
Brother of Nicholas II, next heir to the throne after Alexis Romanov, had a controversial marriage, declined the throne after Nicholas abdicated
February 1917 Revolution
The monarchy collapses, set up the Provisional Government
When did Czar Nicholas II abdicate?
March 15, 1917
Who was Lenin?
Leader of the Bolsheviks and first leader of the Soviet Union, (Peace, Land, Bread)
The Kornilov Affair
in late 1917 Kerensky's commander in chief, General Laver Kornolov led a feeble attack against the provincial government in September; his forces were quickly defeated.
Who was Alexander Kerensky?
Leader of the provisional government and the Mensheviks
October 25, 1917
Bolsheviks storm and seize control of the Winter palace
-arrest the Provisional Gov't
- announces the start of the Soviet Union
When was the October Manifesto issued?
October 17th 1905
What was the October Manifesto?
Tsars' speech to create reforms after bloody Sunday, guaranteed civil liberties (e.g., freedom of speech, press, and assembly), and a legislative body (the Duma) whose members would be popularly elected
Father of Communism, Communist Manifesto
Who were the Marxists?
These were socialists who supported and claimed there would be a worker's revolution in which workers would seize control of factors and create a socialist society; formed the basis for the theory and practice of communism
Where did Lenin flee to?
Where was Lenin during the February Revolution?
Exiled to Switzerland
What were the causes of the Russo-Japanese War?
-both Russia and Japan wanted to establish a presence in Manchuria in order to advance their own industrial development
-both wanted to possess the physical wealth that Korea owned
-both saw themselves as ascendent Pacific powers
What were the impacts of the Russo-Japanese War on Japan?
demolished the Russian army and won the war, claimed Lushun, began industrial development in Manchuria, and controlled Korea
What were the impacts of the Russo-Japanese War on Russia?
their first defeat to a non-western nation, Tsar's popularity plummeted, and the government was ridiculed by the middle class, massive worker strikes
How did western powers perceive the outcome of the Russo-Japanese War?
-Britian ensured Japan was an ally to them
-USA saw Japan as a real threat
What is the Duma?
Russia's first elected parliament, established by Nicholas II in the October manifesto, wasn't as powerful as it was said to be
in World War I Russia, government control of banks and most industries, the seizing of grain from peasants, and the centralization of state administration under Communist control
Who was Trotsky?
A commander of the new Bolshevik army, the Red Army
Who was Stalin?
Joseph Stalin was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
What type of revolution did Trotsky want?
socialist revolution, believed that an economic system must be seen and understood as a world system rather than as a national one.
What type of revolution did Stalin want?
socialist revolution, could be achieved "in one country," independent of other countries.
Russian Purges under Stalin
- 1921 to 1953
- between 3 and 60 million deaths attributed to the direct and indirect policies of Stalin's regime
Who were the Mensheviks?
Minority group, wanted a neat and orderly revolution- (wanted support of everyone)
Who were the Bolsheviks?
Radical Marxist group in Russia that wanted change immediately
What was the Provisional Government?
The temporary government put in place while the Russians decided what type of government they wanted
When did the Provisional Government take power?
March 1917 after the abdication of the Tsar
When did the provisional government fall?
Who was Kornilov?
A right-wing war hero who despised Socialism - from a humble background - great military record.
What did Kornilov want?
to overthrow radical socialists, continue an offensive war and restore order
What did Kornilov do?
He ordered 6 regiments of troops to march on Petrograd - intended to crush the Soviet and establish a dictatorship.
What did Rasputin do?
He opposed reform measures and obtained powerful positions for his friends
what did Rasputin make Alexandra do?
appoint and fire whichever government officials he wanted
Who were the Kulaks?
What did the kulaks oppose?
the Soviet Government for making them collective farm
What is isolationism?
a policy of remaining apart from the affairs or interests of other groups, especially the political affairs of other countries.
Why did the US practice isolationism?
They didn't want to interfere with international affairs
What was the League of Nations?
After the First World War it was an organization formed to help countries settle their differences peacefully rather than war
Who was in the League of Nations?
Britain, France, Italy, Japan,
What did the League of Nations do?
Maintain world peace, preventing wars through collective security and disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.
Refers to the fact the US became a society where people spent money and bought new products rather than saving
What is laissez-faire?
policy of minimum governmental interference in the economic affairs of individuals and society.
What is Keynesian economics?
created by John Maynard Keynes, large scale government spending to stimulate the economy.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification
Warren G. Harding
Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "Return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition
(1923-1929), small gov't conservative; laissez faire ideology; in favor of immigration restriction (Immigration Act); reduced the tax burden; the Bonus Bill was passed over his veto; Revenue Act of 1924; Kellogg-Briand Pact
The 31st President of the United States; President during the stock market crash of '29
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII
the unequal distribution of household or individual income across the various participants in an economy
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
What did the New Deal do?
FDR had bank holidays and closed the banks. He created programs to provide work, direct relief to people and aid to relief agencies, and built infrastructure.
Did the New Deal end the Great Depression?
No, WWII did
a shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s.
Taxes on imports or exports
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents
What did the Neutrality Acts do?
No American can sell anything to a war country. No loans to countries in war.
Who passed the Neutrality Acts?
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
What did the TVA do?
Government built dams to provide electricity to rural areas around the Tennessee River
Cash and Carry Policy
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.