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66 Terms
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Binary Fission
Asexual reproduction of bacterial/prokaryotic cells; production of genetically identical cells. Divided into three phases
Replication, Elongation, and Separation
What are the three phases of Binary fission?
bacterial DNA is copied and attached to the plasma membrane
increase of cell size and content between the replicated DNA
bacterial cells split between replicated DNA
Bacterial Conjugation
sexual reproduction of bacterial cells; exchanging of plasmids (extra genetic info) between bacteria that are genetically different
Laws of thermo
_____ : defined properties and behavior of energy
potential energy
____ energy: stored energy
kinetic energy
_____ energy : energy of motion or movement
first law of thermo
_____ : energy cannot be created or destroyed
2nd law of thermo
_____ : as energy changes forms the amount of useable energy decreases and heat increases
Primary structure
_____ : the amino acid linear order; "How the amino acids line up"
secondary structure
_____ : the bending and twisting of linear order; formed because of hydrogen bonding
tertiary structure
_____ : refers to the 3-D shape of proteins; most common structure
_____ : a biological catalyst
_____ : molecules that speed up chemical reactions
Enzymes are proteins in their ______ strructure
Enzymes only speed up chemical reactions that occur _________
Are enzymes used up in a chemical reaction?
binding of specific molecules called ______ to speed up the chemical reactions
Enzyme-substrate binding is ________
activation energy
speed up chemical reactions by decreasing the _______ _______
active site
_____ : pocket on enzymes where substrates bind to speed up chemical reactions
allosteric regulation
_____ : enzyme is enhanced or suppressed by a small organic molecule presence
competitive inhibition
_____ : two or more molecules that are similar in structure compete for the same active site of an enzyme
_____ : metabolic pathway that will harvest the energy stored in glucose under aerobic conditions
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy/heat
What is the chemical equation for respiration?
Where does respiration occur?
Endosymbiotic theory
This theory suggests that organelles such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts within the eukaryotic cell same abut as the result of endosymbiosis between prokaryotic cells and a host cell (eukaryotic cell)
- own DNA - own ribosomes - own plasma membrane - reproduce independently of cell
What are the pieces of evidence for the endosymbiotic theory?
_____ membrane of mitochondria: the outermost boundary of the mitochondria
_____ membrane of mitochondria : inner most membrane of the mitochondria
_____ : folds and grooves of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
_____ : enzyme-filled space of the inner membrane of the mitochondria
Glycolysis, fermentation, and the Krebs Cycle
What are the three reactions of respiration?
cytoplasm, not in the mitochondria
Where does Glycolysis occur?
Where does fermentation occur?
in the mitochondria
where does the Krebs cycle occur?
2 molecules of pyruvate
What is the product of glycolysis?
alcohol or lactic acid
What is the product of fermentation?
ATP (energy)
What is the product of the Krebs cycle?
Kreb's cycle: aerobic or anarobic
fermentation: aerobic or anarobic
glycolysis: aerobic or anaerobic
______ : oxygen is not present
____ : oxygen is present
_____ : net movement of material from the outside to the inside of the cell
_____ : movement of large material to the inside of the cell
_____ : movement of specific material to the inside of the cell
_____ : net movement of material from the inside to the outside of the cell
quaternary structure
_____ : refers to many 3D protein shapes
independent variable
_____ : object if interest, what is being tested in an experiment (what you think is the answer to your problem)
dependent variable
_____ : measurable outcome, results.
idea -> hypothesis -> theory -> law
What is the order from smallest to largest of scientific information?
1) every living thing will be made up of at least one cell 2) Cells are the basic unit of life 3) Cells arise from preexisting cells
what are the three parts of cell theory?
Prokaryotic cells do not have a membrane-bound nucleus and eukaryotic cells do
What is the main difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
bacteria cells only.
What kind of cells are prokaryotic cells?
central dogma theory
______ :theory stating that genetic information flows only in one direction, from DNA, to RNA, to protein, or RNA directly to protein
Mitosis is asexual and occurs in body cells while Meiosis is sexual and occurs in egg/sperm cells.
What are the 2 main difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?
1) substrate 2) active site
the _____ is often held in the ______ of an enzyme by hydrogen or Ionic bonds to speed up the chemical reactions.
the energy released from one reaction is used to drive the other reaction
Catabolic and Anabolic pathways are often couples reactions in a cell because:
1) proteins 2)Tertiary
Enzymes are _____ with characteristic _____ shapes.
exergonic reactions
_____ proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontanous
1) glycolysis 2) cytoplasm 3) pyruvate
______ occurring in the _____, breaks glucose into two molecules of _____.
1) glucose 2) carbon dioxide 3) energy
_____ + oxygen ---> _____ + water + _____
1) high 2) low
Muscel cells use lactic acid fermentation when energy demand is _____ and oxygen supply is _____