Hum 10 New France Test

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Who first claimed land for France in North America?
Jaques Cartier
When did the French first claim land in North America?
Why did the French first settle in North America?
To trade with the indigenous population
What did the French trade for?
The French traded simple items such as pots and knives for furs.
Did Jaques Cartier ever establish a permanent colony in North
Who founded New France?
Samuel de Champlain
When was New France founded?
Originally founded in 1605 in Nova Scotia, but was abandoned. Founded again in 1608 in Quebec.
Who was New France allied and against in 1608?
Allied with Herons (AKA Wendats), Algonquins and Montagnais against the Iroquois.
What did the Herons provide for New France in return for protection from the Iroquois?
Who were the Coureurs de Bois?
Independent French traders who explored North America, and lived and married in communities they found.
Did the Montagnais and Algonquins remain allied with the French?
No, defected to the English.
What was the Company of a Hundred Associates?
A company backed by Cardinal Richelieu that took over New France.
What did the Company of a Hundred Associated do?
Brought over more settlers, established seigneuries. Who
What was the Seigneurial system?
A system in which the soil belonged to the 'Seigneur', but everything on the land belonged to the king. The Seigneur subdivided their land and granted it to 'Habitants'. The habitants gave the Seigneurs 10% of their income, in return the Seigneur built churches, maintained a court and allowed them to live off the land.
Who were the Jesuits?
Christian missionaries who attempted to spread Christianity to the native population.
What happened to the Company in 1660?
It lost the fur trade monopoly and went bankrupt?
When and why did the Crown make New France a Royal Colony?
Was made a royal colony in 1663 to prevent it from failing due to Iriqouis attacks and bankruptcy. This gave New France a government instead of a parent company.
Who were the Wendat / Hurons ?
A native peoples allied with the French.
Why did the Wendat allow Jesuits into their population?
France promised a military and economic alliance in return.
What caused the fall of the Wendats?
They were weakened from European illnesses, and were attacked by the Iroquois in the summer of 1647.
How many Wendats survived?
About 1000.
How was New France peopled?
1/3 was retired soldiers given land packages. The crown gave grants to families with 10 children, and a dowry of land to young couples. W
Who were the "Filles du Roi" (King's daughter's)?
1000+ women sent to New France. Many were prostitutes or poor orphaned women,
What was the contract in New France?
Bound by a 3-year contract as indentured workers. Many stayed in New France after the 3 years were over.
Who were the Haudenosaunee / Iroquois?
A confederacy of the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga and Mohawk nations. Founded by the prophet 'Peacemaker'. Enemies with the Wendat.
What does Haudenosaunee mean?
"People of the Long House"
Who were the Anishinaabe / Algonquins?
Long-standing allies with the Wendat. Traded furs for Wendat corn. Allied with French and Wendat.
Who were the Innu/ Montagnais
Mountain tribe that lived in Labrador and some parts of QuebecW
What does Wendat mean?
How was the Government of New France set up?
King Louis XIV had absolute power, from the "Divine Right of Kings". The colony was run by Jean Baptiste Colbert, a trusted advisor of King Louis and Minister of Marine (colonies). The Governor General represented the King in New France and was appointed from the Military. The Intendant oversaw day-day operations in New France and came from Nobility. The Bishop represented the Catholic Church and ruled over education, churches, hospitals, missionary work, and weddings and funerals.
What was the 'Great Chain of Being'?
The great chain of being is a hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought by medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God. The chain begins with God and descends through angels, humans, animals and plants to minerals.
What economic system did New France follow?
What sect of Christianity did New France follow?
Almost entirely R.C. (Catholic). The king decreed only Catholics could go the New France.
Primary Industry
Harvests or extracts raw material.
Secondary Industry
Convert materials into products
Tertiary Industries
Provides good and services using Primary + Secondary products
What was similar about the Wendat's and Christian's worldviews?
Both believed in supernatural influence, pre-determinism, that god(s) was/were 'above', encouraged personal contact with the divine, and believed in an afterlife.
What was different about the Wendat's and Christian's worldviews?
Monotheism v Polytheism, ideas on marriage differed, Wendat did not undestand abstinence or the concept of 'original sin'. Wendat's had no hell and believed dreams were guidance from the divine.