Radiographic Imaging Mod 4

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61 Terms
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_______________ is the positive side of the x-ray tube, serves as a target surface for electrons from the filament and conducts high voltage from the cathode back to the generator
_______________ is the reduction in the number of x-ray photons as the beam passes through matter
_______________ is the number of nuclear protons in an atom unique to each element
atomic number
_______________ is the amount of energy needed to remove the electron from the atom
binding energy
_______________ is the negative side of the x-ray tube, produces electrons to accelerate to the anode
_______________ is the weighted average atomic number for the different elements of a material
effective atomic number
_______________ is the small coil of thin tungsten wire
_______________ is an unintended optical density on an image that reduces contrast due to light/chemical exposure
_______________ is the number of waves that passes a particular point in a given time frame
_______________ is the initial photon from the primary beam
incident photon
_______________ is the initial electron from the cathode
incident electron
_______________ is an atom that has gained or lost an electron
_______________ is a small bundle of energy (electromagnetic energy) aka quantum
_______________ is an artifact caused by unintentional exposure to radiation
radiation fog
_______________ is x-rays scattered back in the opposite or right angle direction to the primary beam
scatter radiation
_______________ is penetrating, ionizing electromagnetic energy
_______________ is made between anode and cathode's electrons, so it is why the electrons move across the x-ray tube at _______________ speed
potential difference, 1/2 the speed of light
99% of photon production is _______________ and 1% is _______________ and _______________
infrared, characteristic and bremstrallung
_______________ shows photon emissions at their energies, majority of photons are at _______________ of set kV
emission spectrum, 1/3
_______________ when incident photon travels through patient w/o hitting anything - creates black spots on radiograph. What makes our pictures. It has no charge, no ionization
more transmission happens when _______ atomic parts, ________ kVp (travels straighter), and _______ parts
low, high, thin
less transmission happens when _________ atomic number, ________ kVp, and _________ parts
high, low, thick
transmission is dependent on __________/__________
kV, energy
_______________ gets absorbed by either knocking out electron or trying to knock out electron. Mainly happens with ____-shell electrons. Loses all its energy knocking out electron.
photo-electric effect, k
a _______________ is a bundle of energy, so it doesn't exist anymore when hitting k-shell electron in PE effect. The energy is transferred to the electron that was knocked out, so photon can't make it to film and this creates _______________ spots on radiograph
photon, white
_______________ _______________ in photo-electric effect lose all their energy or it's scatter
incident photons
more photo electric = _________ kV, _________ parts, and ________ atomic number
less, thicker, higher
less photo electric = ________ kV, ________ parts, _________ atomic number
more, thinner, lower
for PE it is the incoming photon _____ shell binding energy = ______________
minus, electron lost's energy
_______________ is when patient's make radiation/photons from the empty shell that is filled after losing it's. electron. (Characteristic radiation made inside what we radiate)
secondary radiation
classical scatter or coherent is not _______________ or doesn't make atom lose electron. It is considered this because it only happens at ______ keV or less. (Does not get through)
ionizing, 10
secondary radiation undergoes another PE affect with in _______________ of patient tissue
1-2 cm
_______________ goes in any direction
in classical or coherent scatter, either the electron in a shell is jiggled and releases the same amount of energy to return to equilibrium which is _______________ or the whole atom is jiggled by incident photon and releases same amount of energy to return to equilibrium which is _______________ (the energy released from both is a different photon than the incident photon)
thompson, rayleigh
_______________ radiation is from the tube
_______________ is caused by incident photon's energy not being fully absorbed or trasferred. -why we wear lead shielding -same photon from x-ray tube
compton scatter
_______________ is the number one occupational dose source
compton scatter
in _______________, the majority of the time is happening on outershell electrons due to _______________
compton scattering, low binding energies
_______________ is caused by forward scatter which lowers contrast, or ruins white areas
radiation fog
_______________ happens after vacant electrons get filled
secondary radiation
more scatter and less contrast happens when.... _______ matter ________ part density _________ field size _______ kV
more, more, more, more
scatter _______________ contrast
scatter can also be called _______________
does atomic number affect scatter?
no, but part density does
thicker/bigger patient = _______________ scatter (comptom)
secondary radiation travels _____________ than undergoes ____________
1-2 cm, Photoelectric effect
_______________ scatter happens when incident photon loses less energy, _______________ scatter happens when incident photon loses half it's energy, _______________ scatter happens when incident photon loses more energy
forward, side, back
_______________ scatter is what tech is most worried about for occupational dose
_______________ absorption is based off of object/part thickness, compositon
_______________ is the average of atomic number's of the elements something is made out of
effective atomic number
_______________ effective atomic number is 6.46 _______________ effective atomic number is 7.51 _______________ effective atomic number is 7.64 _______________ effective atomic number is 7.78 _______________ effective atomic number 12.31
fat, water, muscle, air, bone
why does air look different in radiographs than water and muscle whose effective atomic number are about the same?
it is in a different state (gaseous)
osteolytic = ________ transmission or go ________ in technique. Less PE
more, down
osteoblastic and edema = __________ photoelectric effect or go _____ in technique. Absorption = _____ Less transmission
more, up, more
___________ kV = more compton scatter
Differential absorption
Different degrees of absorption in different tissues that results in image contrast and formation of the x-ray image (thick v.s thin tissue)
In compton scatter _______ have energy left over after knocking out ____ _____
photons, outer shells
Back scatter has ______ energy left
Side scatter has _____ energy left
Forward scatter has _____ energy left
Compton scatter ________ patient dose, _______ bystander dose, and _______ image quality
increases, increases, reduces