history ch 9, ch 10, 12-3 vocab/important ppl or factions

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the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
local rulers were left in palce but were expected to follow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade or missionary activity.
sphere of influence
an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.
Sir Hiram Maxim
Invented the Maxim machine gun which was used by European powers to persuade countries to accept Western control.
Usman dan Fodio
A scholar and preacher that denounced the corruption of the local Hausa rulers. Called for social and religious reforms based on teh sharia, or Islamic law.
Asante ppl/kingdom
Traded with Europeans and Muslims. Their tributary states were willing to turn on them
A major force in southern Africa under the rule of Shaka.
Ruler of the Zulus. He waged relentless war and conquered nearby peoples. He encouraged rival groups to forget their differences, and cemented a growing pride
Descendants of the Dutch farmers that migrated north from the Cape Colony. Escaped British rule and didn't agree with the British laws
Sierra Leone and Liberia
Colonies made by Britain and the United States where freed slaves could resettle
Mungo Park and Richard Burton
Set out to map the course and sources of African rivers.
"saw them as children in need of guidance" < from book, making decisions for other people rather than letting them take responsibility for their own lives
Dr. David Livingstone
Explorer and missionary. For 30 years he crisscrossed Africa. He wrote about the people he met and was against the slave trade.
Henry Stanley
Trekked into Central AFrica to find Livingstone. Eventually he found Livingstone in Tanzania
King Leopold II
The king of Belgium who hired Stanley to explore the Congo river basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders
Boer War
Involved bitter guerilla fighting. British won but at great cost
Samori Touré
fought French forces in West Africa, where he was building an empire
Yaa Asantewaa
Asante queen who led the fight against the British in the last Asante war.
Woman military leader of the Shona in Zimbabwe; Was executed, but inspired later generations
Yao and Herero
Were in wars with Germany. Lost thousands of people to starvation after Germans burned farmland
Menelik II
Modernized ethiopia. At Battle of Adowa he crushed the Italian invaders
upper class(Western-educated African elite during Imperialism)
Muhammad Ahmad
Announced that he was the Mahdi in Sudan
The long awaited savior of the faith
Wahhabi movement
An Islamic reform movement in Arabia. Rejected schools of theology and law that emerged in the Ottoman empire
provincial rulers that increased powers during the Ottoman decay
rulers of the Ottoman Turkish empire
Young Turks
A movement that insisted that reform was the only way to save the Ottoman empire. Overthrew the sultan
A deliberate attempt to destroy a racial, political, or cultural group
Christian Armenians
Were accused of supporting Russian plans against the Ottoman empire. 600k - 1.5 mill Armenians killed or died
Muhammad Ali
An ambitious solder appointed ruler of Egypt by the Ottomans. "father of modern egypt"
Ferdinand de Lesseps
French entrepreneur that organized a company to build the Suez canal.
Qajar shahs
rulers of Persia that exercised absolute power. Gov took some steps to introduce reforms
special rights given to foreign powers (given by Persia to European nations for the oil in their country)
A Hindu custom that called for a widow to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral fire (banned by British)
Indian soldiers in the East India Company's service
A british leader in India that governed in the name of the queen and Brits held top positions in the civil service and army
cutting of trees(done by the British in India)
Ram Mohum roy
A great scholar who knew Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, English, etc. Founder of Hindu College in Calcutta (english style education)
The isolation of women in separate quarters
balance of trade
The difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports
trade surplus
exporting more than importing
trade deficit
buying more(importing more) than exporting
Opium War
British wanted free trade and wanted to continue selling Opium to the Chinese, despite the gov. banning it
payment for losses in the war
the right to live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts
Taiping Rebellion
Called for an end to the hated Qing dynasty. Won large parts of China and held out for 14 years.
Hong Xiuquan
Was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion
Ci Xi
The empress who gained power post-Taiping Rebellion
Sino-Japanese War
Japanese pressure on China led to this and Japan crushed China which gave them control of Taiwan
Open Door Policy
A policy to keep Chinese trade open to everyone on an equal basis (made by Europeans)
Guang Xu
launched the 100 days of reform and wanted to modernize various things about China
Boxer Uprising
Goalw as to drive out foreign people and attacked them across the country
Sun Yixian
Organized the Revolutionary Alliance to rebuild China on "Three principles of the people"
Matthew Perry
Commodore who sailed into lower Tokyo Bay and carried a message from Millard Fillmore demanding Japan to open its ports to diplo and commercial exchange
The other name for Edo, the new location of the shogun's palace under Mutsuhito/Meiji
Meiji Restoration
Meiji reformers determined to strengthen Japan. Studied Western ways and adapted them to Japanese needs.
a legislature made up of one elected house and one house appointed by the emperor
powerful banking and industrial families (ex. Kawasaki family)
homogeneous society
its people shared a common culture and language
tributary state
a state that is independent but acknowledges the supremacy of a stronger state.
First Sino-Japanese War (the same as the other Sino-Japanese War card)
Japan benefitted from modernization and won easily against China. Gained Taiwan
Russo-Japanese WAr
Power struggle for Korea and Manchuria. Japan defeated russia and first instance of an Asian country humbling a European power
March First Movement
A rallying symbol for Korean nationalists and was an uprising that resulted in the massacre of Koreans by the Japanese
French Indochina
The area containing Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. French control
King of Siam. Negotiated with Western powers and satisfied their goals in Siam thru unequal treaties. Escaped becoming a European colonyCh
Mongkut's son who worked with himt o reform gov, modernize army, etc.
Jose Rizal
Inspired Filipinos to work to gain better treatment from Spain
Spanish-American WAr
Broke out between Spain and US over Cuba's attempts at independence from Spain
Emilio Aguinaldo
Filipino nationalist leader angered by the US purchase of the Philipines
Hawaiian queen that had her land annexed by teh US because American sugar growers pressed for power
William Lyon Mackenzie
Led the revolt in Upper Canada
Louis Joseph Papineau
head of the French Canadian Reform party, revolt in Lower Canada
the unification of Britain's North American colonies.
John Macdonald and George Etienne Cartier
urged confederation
a self governing nation (own parliament, some control over foreign policy, close ties with Britain)
Louis Riel
led a revolt of the metis to resist westward expansion
Captain James Cook
claimed Australia for Britain
original people called the Aborigines.
penal colony
a place where convicted criminals are sent to be punished
people of mixed Native American and French Canadian descent
the indigenous people of New Zealand that were being converted to Christianity
Amritsar massacre
A turning point for many Indians. Convinced them that India needed to govern itself
General Reginald Dyer
banned public meetings in India following Indian riots and attacks
Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi
a middle-class Hindu who went to England to study law. Advocated against discrimination against Indians in South Africa.
nonviolence and reverence for all life. power of love
Henry Thoreau
civil disobedience ideal; gandhi influenced by himci
civil disobedience
the refusal to obey unjust laws
members of the lowest caste in India
the refusal to buy goods/partake in something
Gandhi's salt march
Gandhi and a bunch of Indians followed Gandhi in a trek to the ocean. He collected a piece of sea salt. Protested the British monopoly on salt and other goods. Encouraged Indians to sell salt anyway, ignoring British rules
Indian participation in WW2
Britain asked India to be part of WW2 and despite angry nationalists being jailed over noncooperation, many indians did help