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ICP Final

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126 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (126)
chemistry
study of matter and energy
steps of the scientific method
1. Define the problem 2. Gather information 3. make a hypothesis 4. perform the experiment 5. analyze the data 6. conclusion
independent variable
what you are testing; the thing being manipulated
dependent variable
what is being measured (changed by the independent)
control
the thing that stays the same
standard
a quality that people agree to use for comparison
scientific law
description of events in nature; WHAT happens
scientific theory
explanation of events in nature; WHY things happen
scientific model
representation of an object or event that can be used to understand the real thing (which may be too complex, small, or large to see)
science
observing, studying, or experimenting to find patterns in nature
technology
application of science usually resulting in an invention
Giga(G)
1 billion
Mega(M)
1 million
Kilo(k)
1000
Deci(d)
1/10
Centi(c)
1/100
Milli(m)
1/1000
Micro(µ)
1/1,000,000
Nano(n)
1/1,000,000,000
length
distance from one point to another (meter)
mass
the amount of matter in an object (gram)
volume(V)
the amount of space and object takes up (liter)
density(D)
the amount of matter in a given amount of space (mass/volume)
scientific notation
write a very large or small number as a power of ten (Ex: 750,000,000 = 7.5*10^8)
which variable goes on the x-axis?
independent variable
which variable goes on the y-axis?
dependent variable
accuracy
How close your measurement is to the real one (correct)
knowt flashcard image
precision
how close your measurement is to other measurements made in the same way (repeatable)
knowt flashcard image
how do you add and subtract to correct sig figs? (1.2+2.53)
round answer to the left-most estimated digit (3.7)
how do you multiply and divide to correct sig figs? (125/5)
round answer to the least number of sig figs (30)
matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
pure substances
matter with a definite composition and definite properties
element
simplest form of matter
atom
the smallest particle of an element that still acts like that element
chemical symbol
shorthand way of writing the names of the elements
compound
2 or more elements that are chemically combined
molecule
the smallest particle of a substance that still acts like that substance
chemical formula
shorthand way of writing out compounds
mixtures
2 or more kinds of matter (pure substances) PHYSICALLY mixed together -can be separated using physical properties -no fixed ratio -similar properties as substances in the mixture
homogeneous mixture
substances are spread out evenly (Ex: salt water, air)
heterogeneous mixture
substances are NOT spread out evenly (Ex: chocolate chip cookie, pizza, sand)
alloys
homogeneous mixtures of metals (Ex: bronze)
colloids
looks like particles are spread out evenly but aren't (Ex: butter, pearls)
suspension
particles that settle to the bottom (Ex: Italian dressing, hot chocolate)
physical properties
properties that can be observed with 5 senses and measured (Ex: color)
chemical properties
ability to react or the lack of ability (Ex: flammability)
intensive properties
does NOT depend on the amount (Ex: color, density)
extensive properties
depend on the amount (Ex: mass, volume)
physical change
-only a change in physical properties -usually reversible -Ex: melting, freezing
chemical change
a process by which new substances are formed having new physical and chemical properties; not easily reversible (Ex: rusting, burning)
4 signs of a chemical change
1. bubbles (gas is forming) 2. heat or light (burning) 3. color change 4. precipitate (2 liquids become solid)
steps for proving a calculation
1. write down the information given to you 2. write down the equation you are going to use -use variables and move for the solved variable 3. substitute letters for units 4. answer
melting point
temperature that a solid turns into a liquid
boiling point
temperature that a liquid turns into a gas
synthetic
man-made
solid
substance with definite shape and definite volume
liquid
substance with definite volume but no definite shape
gas
substance with no definite shape or volume; fills its container
plasma
similar to a gas but with charged particles (most common phase in the universe)
kinetic theory of matter
-all matter is made up of tiny particles in constant motion -the higher the temperature the faster the particles move -particles with less mass move faster
thermal energy
higher temp. → particles move faster → more energy
movement in solids
particles are close together and vibrate in place
crystalline solid
particles are in a pattern (most common solid)
amorphous solid
particles are not in a pattern
movement in liquids
particles are close together but can slip past each other (flow)
viscosity
resistance to flow (high: molasses, glue ~ low: water, juice)
movement gas
particles move in a straights line until they collide with something and change directions
melting
solid → liquid
freezing
liquid → solid
vaporization
liquid → gas
condensation
gas → liquid
deposition
gas → solid
sublimination
solid → gas
endothermic phase change
requires energy to be added -melting -boiling -evaporation -sublimation
exothermic phase change
releases energy -freezing -condensation -deposition
boiling vs evaporation
knowt flashcard image
Archimedes Principle
the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object (duck)
Bernoulli's Principle
the pressure in a moving stream of fluid is less than the pressure in the surrounding fluid (hair dryer + ping pong ball)
Pascal's Principle
the pressure in a fluid is transmitted equally throughout the fluid (hydraulics)
pressure equation
F1/A1 = F2/A2
Boyle's Law
P1V1 = P2V2
Charles' Law
V1/T1 = V2/T2
Gay-Lussac's Law
P1/T1 = P2/T2
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
the location of an electron can only be described in terms of probabilities of where it might be located
protons(p+)
positive electrical charge 1 atomic mass unit(amu)
neutrons(n)
no electrical charge; neutral 1 amu (slightly larger than p+)
electrons(e-)
negative electrical charge 1/1836 amu
Atoms are...
neutral; p+ = e-
Main energy levels
1,2,3,4,5,6,7
sublevels
s,p,d,f
s
1 orientation (max 2 e-)
p
3 orientations (max 6 e-)
d
5 orientations (max 10 e-)
f
7 orientations (max 14 e-)
orbitals
s p d f 1 1s 2 2s 2p 3 3s 3p 3d 4 4s 4p 4d 4f 5 5s 5p 5d 5f 6 6s 6p 6d 6f 7 7s 7p 7d 7f
Al
Aluminum
C
Carbon
Cl
Chlorine
H
Hydrogen
Mg
Magnesium
N
Nitrogen
O
Oxygen
Si
Silicon
He
Helium

F

Flourine

Br
Bromine
P
Phosphorus
S
Sulfer
I
Iodine
Au
Gold
Li
Lithium
Isotopes
atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons
Periodic Law
similar physical and chemical properties recur periodically when the elements are listed by increasing atomic number
Valence e-
electrons on outermost energy level
Metals
* conductors of heat and electricity * shiny * high melting point * malleable = pounded into a sheet * ductile = pulled into wire
Group 1: Alkali metals
* extremely reactive * 1 valence e-
Group 2: Alkaline Earth metals
* very reactive * 2 valence e-
Group 3-12: transition metals
common metals (ex: Fe, Cu, Zn, Au)
Lanthanide series
top row of rare Earth metals \-part of period 6
Actinide series
bottom row of rare Earth metals \-part of period 7
Nonmetals
* insulators * dull * low melting point * brittle

Groups 13-16: mixed groups

-top = more non-metallic

-bottom = more metallic

Group 17: Halogens

  • very reactive

  • “salt producer”

Group 18: Noble Gases
* completely unreactive * single atoms

Metalloids

  • properties of metals and non-metals

  • semi-conductors

Mole

6.02*10^23 atoms