Finals - Reservoir Geosciences

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

spaced repetition





Practice Test



168 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (168)
A lithologic unit which significantly impedes the flow of hydrocarbons.
Pore throat size
the major control on the ability of hydrocarbons to enter the pore network of a given rock.
Brittle lithologies
tend to develop fractures while ductile lithologies tend to flow plastically under deformation.
1. Small throat space (ie. fine grained) 2. Laterally continuous 3. Maintain uniformity of lithology over large areas 4. Relatively ductile
Properties of an Effective Seal
Shales - 65% Evaporites - 33% Carbonate - 2%
Major Type of Seals
Structural Stratigraphic Combination
There are three types of geologic traps
Structural Traps
It is created by the deformation of rock strata within the Earth’s crust. This deformation can be caused by horizontal compression or tension, vertical movement and differential compaction, which results in the folding, tilting, and faulting within sedimentary rock formations.
Anticlinal and Dome Trap Salt Dome Fault Trap
Types of Structural Traps
Anticlinal and Dome Trap
were originally laid down horizontally the folded upward into an arc or dome. Later, hydrocarbons migrate into the porous and permeable reservoir rock.
Anticlinal and Dome Trap
Necessary conditions: An impervious cap rock and a porous reservoir rock; closure occurs in all directions to prevent leakage.
Salt Dome
A trap created by piercement or intrusion of stratified rock layers from below by ductile nonporous salt. The intrusion causes the lower formations nearest the intrusion to be uplifted and truncated along the sides of the intrusion, while layers above are uplifted creating a dome or anticlinal folding.
Fault Trap
occurs as a result of vertical and horizontal stress. At some point the rock layers break, resulting in the rock faces along the fracture moving or slipping past each other into an offset position.
Fault Trap
formed when the faulted formations are tilted toward the vertical. When a non-porous rock face is moved into a position above and opposite a porous rock face, it seals off the natural flow of the hydrocarbons allowing them to accumulate.
Fault Trap
Necessary conditions: The fault plane must have a sealing effect so that it functions as a fluid migration barrier for reservoir rocks
1. The fault itself makes the trap without an ancillary trapping mechanism such as a fold — normal faults are the most common examples. 2. The fault creates another structure (e.g., a fold or horst) that in turn forms the main trap. 3. The fault may be a consequence of another structure that forms the main trap — e.g., the extensional crestal faults that form above some anticlines.
There are three common fault – petroleum pool associations:
Stratigraphic Traps
formed as a result of differences or variations between or within stratified rock layers, creating a change or loss of permeability from one area to another. These traps do not occur as a result of movement of the strata.
Stratigraphic traps
created by any variation in the stratigraphy that is independent of structural deformation, although many stratigraphic traps involve a tectonic component such as tilting of strata
Primary stratigraphic traps
result from variations in facies that developed during sedimentation. These include features such as lenticular, pinch-outs, and appropriate facies changes.
Secondary stratigraphic traps
result from variations that developed after sedimentation, mainly because of diagenesis. These include variations due to porosity enhancement by dissolution or loss by cementation.
Lenticular Traps
A porous area surrounded by non-porous strata. They may be formed from ancient buried river sand bars, beaches, etc.
Pinch-out or lateral graded Trap
A trap created by lateral differential deposition when the environmental deposition changes up-dip.
Unconformity Traps
resulted from the truncation of reservoir rocks and the subsequent sealing of the subcrop by an unconformable, relatively impermeable, fine-grained, rock unit.
Sandstone Lenses
This kind of trap is also difficult to locate from the surface, and requires subsurface exploration techniques.
The gap in the rock record
it is identified by the erosional surface between rocks of different ages, and represents a major depositional break between the rocks above and below that surface.
1. Disconformity 2. Parallel unconformity 3. Angular unconformity 4. Nonconformity
Types of Unconformities
combination trap
s where two (or more) trapping mechanisms come together to create the trap.
Combination traps
structural closures or deformations in which the reservoir rock covers only part of the structure.
The trap must have been formed before or during the migration of the hydrocarbons. If no trap is present, the migrating hydrocarbons will just move updip until its movement is constrained.
Why is timing important?
Once trapped, the hydrocarbons can further migrate (tertiary migration) or be altered chemically (biodegraded). Tertiary migration will drain the oil field while biodegradation will destroy the quality of the oil.
Why is retention important?
1. A large field can be easily drained if there are several fractures.
rocks with reservoir qualities that abut the reservoir.
Thief Beds
Faults either aid in the [entrapment] of hydrocarbons or cause [leakage] from the trap. They can be sealing or non-sealing.
Source rocks
rich in organic content that must be buried deep enough in the basin
1. Source rocks rich in organic content that must be buried deep enough in the basin so that the temperature will be sufficient to transform the organic matter into petroleum in a process called maturation. 2. The generated petroleum is expelled from the source rock and migrates into a permeable and porous reservoir rock. 3. A seal must envelope the reservoir rock to prevent it from leaking out to the surface or dispersed elsewhere. 4. A trap should exist so that hydrocarbon can be contained and will accumulate within the reservoir. 5. The timing of migration and trap formation is critical. 6. Once it is trapped, retention is important. Post depositional events should prevent it to further migrate or become biodegraded.
the science of understanding the variations in the successively layered character of rocks and their composition.
Sequence stratigraphy
a branch of sedimentary stratigraphy, deals with the order, or sequence, in which depositionally related stratal successions (time-Rock) units were laid down in the available space or accommodation.
sedimentary rocks tracks changes their character through geologic time.
Law of Original Horizontality
proposed by the Danish geological pioneer Nicholas Steno (1638–1686)
Nicholas Steno (1638–1686)
He Proposed the Law of Original Horizontality
Law of Original Horizontality
This principle states that layers of sediment are originally deposited horizontally under the action of gravity.
Law of Superposition
states that beds of rock on top are usually younger than those deposited below. This is logical, consider a layered cake or a stack of books, you can’t add another layer unless one already exists to begin with.
Law of Lateral Continuity
suggests that all rock layers are laterally continuous and may be broken up or displaced by later events
Cross-cutting relationships
also helps us to understand the timing of events. Younger features cut across older features.
The Principle of Faunal Succession
states that a species appears, exists for a time, and then goes extinct. Time periods are often recognized by the type of fossils you see in them.
Angular unconformities
represented by an older group of rock layers has been tilted, eroded, and another younger set of rock layers were deposited on top of this erosional surface.
are an erosional surface between two sets of rock layers. Unlike with angular unconformities, there is no tilting of the older rock layers.
are unconformities that separate different rock types. This is commonly the separation between igneous and sedimentary or metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. These types of unconformities usually indicate that a long amount of time has been eroded away before the younger sedimentary rocks were deposited.
one of the most important unifying concepts in the geosciences that suggests that catastrophic processes were not responsible for the landforms that existed on the Earth's surface.
It suggested that the landscape developed over long periods of time through a variety of slow geologic and geomorphic processes.
intrinsic feature of marine sedimentary basins, and is controlled by relative sea-level change resulting from the interplay of tectonics, sediment supply, and eustasy.
basic stratigraphic principles apply across a wide range of space and time scale.
Walther’s Law of Facies
introduced by the German geologist Johannes Walther
Johannes Walther
He introduced Walthers Law of Facies
Walther’s Law of Facies
states that any vertical progression of facies is the result of a succession of depositional environments that are laterally juxtaposed to each other.
the branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks.
focuses on macroscopic hand-sample or outcrop-scale description of rocks, while petrography is the speciality that deals with microscopic details.
1. Igneous petrology 2. Sedimentary petrology 3. Metamorphic petrology
Three branches of petrology
Igneous petrology
focuses on the composition and texture of igneous rocks (rocks such as granite or basalt which have crystallized from molten rock or magma). Igneous rocks include volcanic and plutonic rocks.
Sedimentary petrology
focuses on the composition and texture of sedimentary rocks
Metamorphic petrology
focuses on the composition and texture of metamorphic rocks
refers to the mutual relationship of the different mineralogical constituents in a rock
refers to the large scale features or field characteristics of the rocks
1. extrusive igneous rocks 2. intrusive igneous rocks
The basic classification of igneous rocks
Volcanic rocks
formed on the surface of the Earth
Plutonic rocks
formed at considerable depths ( 7- 10 km)
Hypabyssal rocks
formed at intermediate depths (<2km)
coarse grain size
(> 1 mm) is associated with plutonic, or intrusive rocks. Slow cooling usually causes this texture.
fine grain size
(< 1 mm) is associated with volcanic, or extrusive rocks. Rapid cooling usually causes this texture.
Mafic rocks
richer in Mg, Fe, and Ca. They are also darker in color and denser
Felsic rocks
richer in K, Na, Al and Si, and, compared to mafic rocks, are lighter in color as well as density.
1. Holocrystalline 2. Holohyaline 3. Merocrystalline
Degree of Crystallization
1. Coarse-grained 2. Medium-grained 3. Fine-grained
Types of Textures: broadly equal in size
Types of Textures: difference in their relative grain size
Types of Textures: exhibit perfect or semi perfect parallelism of crystals or crystallites in the direction of the flow of magma
Types of Textures: two or more minerals may crystallize out simultaneously in a limited space so that the resulting crystals are mixed up or intergrown
Types of Textures: specifically termed intersertal if the material filling the spaces is glassy in nature
Flow structures
Structures of Igneous rocks due to mobility of magma/lava: development of parallel or nearly parallel layers or bands or streaks in the body of an igneous roc
Pillow structures
Structures of Igneous rocks due to mobility of magma/lava: development of bulbous, overlapping, pillow like surfaces in the body of igneous mass
Ropy and blocky lava
Structures of Igneous rocks due to mobility of magma/lava: surfaces show broken and fragmented appearance, these are called the blocky lava
Spherulitic structures
Structures of Igneous rocks due to mobility of magma/lava: distinguished by the presence of thin mineral fibers of various sizes arranged in perfect or semi perfect radial manner about a common centre
Orbicular structures
Structures of Igneous rocks due to mobility of magma/lava: rare type of structure of igneous rocks, rock mass appears as if composed of ball like aggregations
1. Flow structures 2. Pillow structures 3. Ropy and blocky lava 4. Spherulitic structures 5. Orbicular structures
Structures due to mobility of magma/lava
1. Equigranular 2. Inequigranular 3. Directive 4. Intergrowth 5. Intergranular
Types of Textures
1. Jointing structure 2. Rift and grain 3. Vesicular structure 4. Miarolitic structure
Structures due to cooling of magma
Jointing structure
Structures due to cooling of magma: development of cracks or joints in the rocks formed from these sources, these joints sometimes follow definite patterns
Rift and grain
Structures due to cooling of magma: indicate two separate directions, often used by quarry men, in which the igneous rocks like granite can be broken from the main rock body with a comparative ease. The equally spaced joints are producing cubical blocks.
Vesicular structure
Structures due to cooling of magma: escape of gases while cooling is going on leads commonly to the formation of cavities of various sizes and shapes in the cooled mass.
Miarolitic structure
Structures due to cooling of magma: sometimes small and distinct cavities are formed during the crystallization of magma, these cavities often containing projecting crystals are called miarolitic cavities.
1. Reaction structure 2. Xenolithic structure
Miscellaneous Structure
Reaction structure
Miscellaneous Structure: characterized by the presence in the rock of some incompletely altered minerals conspicuously surrounded on their borders by their alteration products, often happens that some earlier formed minerals react with the magma during the subsequent stages of crystallization
Xenolithic structure
Miscellaneous Structure: imposed on the igneous rocks because of incorporation of foreign material, the foreign fragments are termed xenoliths
1. Concordant 2. Discordant
Forms of igneous rocks has two types:
1. Sills 2. Phacoliths 3. Lopoliths 4. Laccoliths
Concordant Bodies
igneous intrusions that have been injected along or between the bedding planes or sedimentary sequence are known
small sized intrusives that occupy positions in the troughs and crests of bends called folds
igneous intrusions, which are associated with structural basins, that are sedimentary beds inclined towards a common centre
concordant intrusions due to which the invaded strata have been arched up or deformed into a dome
1. Dykes/dikes 2. Volcanic necks 3. Batholiths
Discordant Bodies
defined as columnar bodies of igneous rocks that cut across the bedding plane or unconformities or cleavage planes and similar structures
Volcanic necks
in some cases vents of quiet volcanoes have become sealed with the intrusions, such congealed intrusions
these are huge bodies of igneous masses that show both concordant and discordant relations with the country rock
Sedimentary petrology
the classification and study of sedimentary deposits/rocks. This study is the basis for understanding sediment transport and deposition processes, as well as shedding light on the environmental setting where the sediments were formed.
Sedimentary rocks
formed by the accumulation, compaction and consolidation of sediments
secondary rocks
They are {1}, derived from the sediments produced by the weathering of pre-existing rocks
The accumulation and compaction of these sediments usually take place in the presence of {1}
1. Nature of gathering ground 2. Duration of transport 3. Mixing up of sediments 4. Allogenic and authigenic minerals
Factors influencing mineralogical composition:
1. Origin of grains 2. Size of grains 3. Shapes of grains 4. Packing of grains 5. Fabric of grains 6. Crystallization trend
Textures of sedimentary rocks are determined by:
Clastic and non-clastic textures
Origin of grains
- avg grain size >5mm Medium-grained
Rounded sub-rounded angular & sub-angular
Shapes of grains
Open-packed Densely packed
Packing of grains
Fabric of grains
Described in terms of orientation of longer axes of grains
Crystalline granular amorphous textures
Grain size
It is a good indicator of the energy or force required to move a grain of a given size
Smaller grain sizes
generally indicate greater transport distances and duration
It will generally improve with the constant or persistent moving of particles, and thus can indicate if particles were transported over a long distance or for a long time period.
indicate selective transport of a particular grain size.
a good indicator for the amount of abrasion experienced by sediments.
Mechanical Structures Chemical Structures Organic Structures
Three types of structure in Sedimentary rocks
Mechanical Structures
stratification, Lamination, Cross bedding, Graded bedding, Mud cracks, Rain prints, Ripple marks
Chemical Structures
Concretionary structures, Nodular structure, Geode structure
Organic Structures
Fossiliferous structure, and Stromatolic structure
Non-clastic rocks
Chemically formed rocks, Organically formed rocks
Siliceous deposits Carbonate deposits Ferruginous deposits Phosphatic deposits Evaporites
Chemically formed rocks
Carbonate rocks Carbonaceous rocks
Organically formed rocks
Metamorphic rocks
form by alteration or modification of any kind of preexisting rock.
may be caused by pressure, heat, or by water or other fluids or gases that infiltrate a protolith.
process of metamorphism
can involve changes in the minerals present, changes in rock texture, or changes in rock composition, or any combination of the three.
Ortho-metamorphic rocks
formed from igneous rocks
Para-metamorphic rocks
formed from sedimentary rocks
1. Temperature 2. Pressure 3. Chemically active fluids
Metamorphic Agents
200° C
Minerals are normally stable at temperatures below {1}
1. The internal heat 2. The magmatic heat
Sources of heat for metamorphism
300°C - 850°C
Metamorphic changes take place between {1} - {2}
1. Uniform pressure 2. Direct pressure
Pressure causing metamorphism is of two types:
Directed pressure
can act in any direction
Uniform pressure
acts vertically downwards
1. These fluids act as carriers of chemical components that drive the chemical reactions with the minerals 2. The pore fluids undergo expansion, with rise in temperature 3. Fluids present around rocks may react with the minerals within them, at elevated temperatures
Chemically active fluids
1. Thermal Metamorphism 2. Dynamic Metamorphism 3. Dynamo-thermal Metamorphism 4. Metasomatism
Types of Metamorphism
Thermal Metamorphism
Refers to all metamorphic processes in which heat plays a predominant role.
Dynamic Metamorphism
Pressure causes movement of and interaction between rocks, resulting in their mechanical breakdown - cataclasis.
Dynamic Metamorphism
Also known as cataclastic, mechanical or dislocation metamorphism
Dynamo-thermal Metamorphism
Also known as Regional Metamorphism
Dynamo-thermal Metamorphism
It refers to metamorphism under the combined action of all the three agents
Dynamo-thermal Metamorphism
Most prevalent of all metamorphic processes
Refers to the formation of new minerals by the chemical replacement of the existing ones, under the influence of chemically active fluids
rom within the rock (mineral metasomatism) from outside the rock (rock metasomatism)
The chemically active fluid may be provided:
1. Recrystallization 2. Rock flowage 3. Granulation 4. Metasomatic replacement
Effects of Metamorphism
Granites undergo dynamic metamorphism, to form crush breccia
Example of Metamorphic Changes: Igneous Rocks
Sedimentary rocks
Example of Metamorphic Changes: Pure limestone, re-crystallizes under conditions of contact metamorphism, to marble
Metamorphic Grades
Represents the extent to which an original rock has been changed by metamorphism
Metamorphic Zone
Indicate the depth wise extension of particular grades of metamorphism
1. 300° C 2. 500° C
The Epizone (temperature < {1}) The Mesozone (temperature b/w {1} - {2}) The Ketazone ( above{2})
1. Crystalloblastic texture 2. Palimpsest texture
Textures of Metamorphic Rocks
Crystalloblastic texture
textures which include all those textures that have been newly imposed upon the rock during the process of metamorphism and are, therefore, essentially the product of metamorphism
Palimpsest texture
textures that include textures which were present in the parent rock and have been retained by the rock despite metamorphic changes in other aspects
1. Cataclastic structure 2. Schistose structure 3. Gneissose structure 4. Maculose structure 5. Gneissose structure
Structures of Metamorphic Rocks
Cataclastic structure
results from the crushing and granulation of minerals and rocks (cataclasis), through the application of stress at low temperatures, with but little new mineral formation, except along planes of considerable movemen
Schistose structure
due to the predominance in a metamorphic rock of flaky, lamellar, tabular, rodlike, and highly-cleavable minerals, such as mica, chlorite, talc, and amphiboles, which, under the dominant influence of directed pressure in dynamo-thermal metamorphism, form layers, felts, and folia arranged in more or less parallel bands
Gneissose structure
rock possessing gneissose structure exhibits a pronounced appearance in which light and dark coloured band alternate
Maculose structure
characterized by a spotted appearance of the rock that may be caused due to the formation of large-sized crystals called porphyroblasts within an otherwise fine grained rock as a result of thermal metamorphism of argillaceous rocks like shale
Granulose structure
produced due to the predominance of equigranular minerals such as quartz, feldspar, pyroxenes and calcite
1. Foliated rocks 2. Non-foliated rocks
Classification of Metamorphic Rocks
Foliated rocks
rocks that show parallelism in their mineralogical and structural constitution e.g. slates, phyllites
Non-foliated rocks
characterized by the absence of foliation