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EP Test 2

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Reversal: What if males invest more than females? (parental investment theory)
路 Males are choosier 路 Females are larger, more competitive & aggressive
Strategic Pluralism Theory
路 Variation in sexual strategies within the sex 路 Just as much variation within sex as there is between the sexes 路 Purpose is to look at the variation within sex rather than between the sexes
Life History Theory
路 Childhood experiences shape people's mating strategy
Predictable/safe childhood (life history theory) =
路 slow reproductive strategy (fewer children and investing large amounts of time and resources to those few)
Unpredictable/dangerous childhood (life history theory) =
路 fast reproductive strategy (reach sexual maturity early, start having sex early, have as many children as fast as you can, impulsive)
Life History Theory has implications for:
路 Age of menarche 路 Age of first child 路 Saving vs. spending
What is the #1 most important trait you look for in a short-term (casual) sexual partner?
Both women and men prioritize physical attractiveness
What can attractive features reflect signs of?
"good genes"
What can symmetry reflect?
A strong immune system
What can attractiveness reflect in women?
fertility and reproductive potential
Facial masculinity
exposure to testosterone masculinizes the face
What can attractiveness partially reflect in men?
testosterone
What does testosterone suppresses?
The immune system
handicap principle
If a man has high T AND is healthy, he probably has very strong immune system (good genes)
What is the best definition of physical attractiveness?
A combination of cues that signals a person's reproductive quality
Maner's Study
路 Automatic attentional adhesion to attractive opposite sex faces 路 Results found greater automatic attention to attractive opposite sex faces when they were in a sexual mood 路 Those in the sexual desire category that were in committed relationships showed less attention to attractive opposite sex targets 路 Underlines the importance of long term relationships
Women's menstrual cycle and short term mating
路 Women's desire for short-term mating changes across the menstrual cycle 路 Women's orientation toward short-term mating increases during ovulation 鈥 Linked with an increase in estrogen
During ovulation women ...
路 women prioritize signs of masculinity 路 prefer the scent of symmetrical men 路 Women dress more provocatively around ovulation 路 Women become more flirtatious, and their partners become more vigilant and jealous 路 Women more willing to cheat on their partner during ovulation (rather they actually cheat depends on the attractiveness of their partner and available partners)
What happens when women who are on the birth control pill get married, and then go off?
路 Women with more attractive partners become more satisfied with their relationships 路 Women with less attractive partners become less satisfied with their relationships 路 Birth control suppress hormones and sexual desire
Human pair bonding
路 In 95% of mammal species, father provides no parental investment and there is no long-term pair bonding 路 Humans are one of the rare exceptions: Fathers often invest tremendously in their offspring and they form pair bonds 路 Why? Human intelligence 路 Humans are smart & have big brains 路 Human offspring born underdeveloped and helpless (to accommodate our big brains) 路 Children benefit from having both parents around 路 Evolution of the human pair-bond
Attachment system
路 originally designed for parent-offspring bonding (exists in many species) 路 When pair-bonding evolved in humans, attachment system co-opted for long-term mating 路 Oxytocin drives this system
2 basic dimensions of attachment:
Anxiety and avoidance
Low avoidance and anxiety =
secure attachment
Which attachment style tends to have the best relationships?
Secure
Anxious
路 clingy, demanding, and possessive. Can push partners away
Avoidant
Emotionally distant
Sex differences in mate preferences:
路 Men value physical attractiveness somewhat more than women do, and somewhat more than they want social status 路 Women value social status somewhat more than men do, and somewhat more than they want physical attractiveness
Willingness to commit and invest:
路 Women prioritize signs of commitment and willingness and ability to invest resources in children
Sex differences in age preferences:
路 Women tend to prefer somewhat older men 路 Older age related to status 路 Men tend to prefer somewhat younger women 路 Youth related to fertility (reproductive potential)
Women's primary long term mating strategy:
路 find a man who is willing and able to commit and invest resources in offspring
Men's primary long term mating strategy:
路 find a woman with high degree of fertility and future reproductive potential
Men's Mate Preferences:
路 Men prefer qualities suggesting a woman would make a good parent 路 Signs of fertility are prioritized 路 Men partnered with fertile women would have more offspring than those partnered with less fertile women
assortive mating theory
路 Individuals with similar levels of desirability as a mate tend to pair off
Do opposites attract?
路 In general, people end up with partners who are similar to them 路 An interesting exception: major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
路 Reflects immune system "type" 路 People prefer those with dissimilar immune system 路 Produces offspring with more well-rounded immunity
How do we know a person's MHC complex?
The best evidence we have is scent; apparently we can smell the type of immune system a person has and it makes them more attractive
Sex ratio theory
Majority sex is at a disadvantage because of increased competition and mating effort 路 Minority sex is at an advantage because of relaxed competition and greater choosiness
Operational sex ratio
# of reproductively aged males to females in a given population/community
Imbalanced sex ratio
路 More men > increases in long-term relationships, monogamy, lower divorce rate, higher paternal investment (when there is more competition men go to the preferred mating strategies of women) 路 More women > less monogamy, higher divorce rate, less paternal investment
Factors that affect parental investment
路 The estimated degree of relatedness to a particular child (not a problem for women, big determinate for men) 路 The ability of a child to convert investment into fitness
Children with two investing parents
路 Lower infant & childhood mortality rates 路 Higher educational attainment 路 Better health 路 More positive emotional well-being 路 Better social skills 路 Greater adult socioeconomic status 路 Go off to have their own successful offspring
Statistically speaking, care from which parent is especially predictive?
Father. Because most mother's will invest anyway, father's vary.
Imprinting
路 Offspring rapidly learn that parent (or whoever is close) is caregiver 路 The role of physical touch
Social nesting
路 Women prepare for motherhood 路 Bring family and friends closer - "tend and befriend" 路 Distance themselves from others/strangers - social selectivity 路 Vigilance to threats 路 Decreased risk-taking 路 Increased attention to signs of aggression in others (ex. Angry faces)
Adoption
路 Adopted children often receive same (or even better) investment as biological children 路 Why? 路 Adoptive parents are often financially well off 路 To adopt requires large commitment 路 Adopted children often need more support
Paternity Certainty
路 Fathers invest more when cues signal relatedness (biggest one is resemblance) 路 Partner fidelity 路 Resemblance to child 路 To increase father investment, people exaggerate claims of resemblance 路 Studies show that infants actually resemble the mom more
Who is expected to invest in parenting more?
路 Older women because they have less future reproductive potential, younger women have many childbearing years ahead of them they have a higher reproductive potential, may benefit more from focusing on mating effort (having more kids rather than investing in current kids.
路 Children of younger mothers more likely to:
路 Be terminated during pregnancy 路 Put up for adoption 路 Be neglected, abused, & die
Compared to women, why might men invest less?
路 Higher reproductive value from focusing on mating effort 路 Attractive & high status men less likely to invest (higher opportunity costs of investing in current children)
Parent child conflict:
路 Parents & kids have different interests 路 Each acts in accord with their own reproductive success 路 Example: Before birth 路 Preeclampsia - baby hinders mom's ability to regulate blood flow - increases nutrition to baby but increases mom's blood pressure, damages kidneys
sibling rivlary
路 Parents: Provide resources equally to offspring (or focus on each child's reproductive value) 路 Offspring: Get as many resources as possible for themselves 路 Parents encourage kids to get along and support siblings more than they want to
Disagreements between parents and siblings:
路 Parents desire equal distribution of resources between child and sib 路 Child wants distribution somewhat in his/her favor, but not drastically unequal (kin selection) 路 When siblings are not biological siblings (e.g., half-siblings) 路 Parent still wants equal distribution of resources between child and sib 路 Child wants highly unequal distribution in his/her favor
Harsh, unpredictable environments (life history theory):
路 Faster maturation 路 More/earlier reproduction 路 Lower parental investment 路 More present-focused and impulsive 路 Feel distant from family
Benign, predictable environments (life history theory):
路 Slower maturation 路 Later/less reproduction 路 Higher parental investment 路 Optimistic about future, risk-averse 路 Feel closer to family
Costs of sexual reproduction:
路 Relatively inefficient at transmitting your genes (asexual vs sexual) (< 100% vs 50% of genes passed to next generation) 路 2 organisms required 路 Costs of finding and attracting a partner
Asexual
identical to parents
Sexual
mixture of both parents
The Red Queen hypothesis (explains how and why sexual reproduction evolved):
路 Sexual reproduction mixes up the genes that generate immune system functioning ("genetic recombination") 路 Increases resistance to pathogens
Why is gamete size/mobility important in thinking about mating psychology?
路 Larger & less mobile gametes require a larger energetic investment (9 months incubation, etc) 路 Female gametes are more reproductively "valuable" 路 Differences in levels of minimum obligatory parental investment serve as the foundation for sex differences in mating psychology 路 Differences exist in initial minimum obligatory investment
Error management theory:
路 Avoid costly errors, even if it means making less costly errors ("smoke detector principle") (snake and stick example)
Sexual overperception bias:
Men overperceive sexual interest from women 路 Avoid missing reproductive opportunities
Factors that increase overperception bias:
路 When the woman is attractive 路 When men are in a sexual mindset 路 When the man (or woman) has power 路 Power > sexual overperception bias > sexualized behavior
Commitment underperception bias:
Women underperceive commitment from men 路 Underestimate long-term commitment intent in men 路 Avoid reproducing with a man who isn't committed (loss of resources)
2 key predictors of relationship problems
declines in satisfaction and interest in alternative relationship partners
relationship maintenance
路 Two strategies people often use: 路 Derogation of attractive alternatives 路 Inattention to attractive alternatives
Infidelity and divorce
路 More attention to attractive relationship alternatives at baseline > twice more likely to commit infidelity 路 Attention to attractive relationship alternatives > infidelity > divorce 路 No derogation of attractive relationship alternatives > infidelity > divorce
Jealousy
路 Jealousy stemming from concerns about infidelity contributes to: 路 Relationship discord 路 Divorce 路 Intimate partner violence
Sex differences in jealousy:
路 Sexual jealousy in men reflects paternal uncertainty (threat of cuckoldry) 路 Emotional jealousy in women reflects threat of commitment loss
Physical aggression:
路 Higher in men than women 路 Plays a key role in male intrasexual competition in other species
Indirect aggression:
路 Higher in women than men 路 Plays a key role in female intrasexual competition 路 Gossip 路 Especially toward women perceived as rivals
Why is kinship important?
路 r = Average amount of shared genes 路 Genetic relatedness (r) matters 路 We do not consciously compute our relatedness to others
Hamilton's rule
路 We will perform behavior when cost outweighed by benefits X relatedness 路 This explains how care for kin could evolve 路 Again, not a conscious strategy 路 C < B X R
Identifying kin:
路 Childhood exposure 路 Growing up together creates sense of kinship 路 The role of familiarity 路 The role of scent 路 Mothers and children recognize each other's smell 路 Siblings may recognize each other, too, but evidence for that isn't as clear 路 Facial resemblance 路 Similarity is reliable cue to relatedness
Kinship estimator =
odor, similarity, childhood exposure, and kin classification systems
Incest aversion
disgust helps avoid kin incest
Why not form romantic relationships with kin?
路 Incest with close genetic relatives increases the risk of obtaining deleterious gene alleles & impairs genetic diversity 路 Problem declines as "r" decreases 路 First-cousin marriages relatively common in many countries and in past 路 Second-cousin appears safest cutoff
Kin in modern times
路 Lack of proximity to kin can cause feelings of alienation and anxiety 路 Mismatch between current and ancestral environments