Unit 5 Vocab: Long Version

0.0(0) Reviews
Report Flashcard set

Spaced Repetition

Scientifically backed study method

spaced repetition


Review terms and definitions



Study with MC, T/F, and other questions


Practice Test

Take a test on your terms and definitions



84 Terms
😃 Not studied yet (84)
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieval information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test
a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for the second time
the processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
long-term potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare" (also known as declarative memory)
effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
Implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection. Because of experience, you recall it without much effort. (Also known as non-declarative or procedural memory)
Iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
organizing items into familiar, manageable units,; often occurs automatically
memory aid, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
shallow processing
Processing information based on its surface characteristics
deep processing
Processing information with respect to its meaning
semantic memory
general information about the world even if you haven't experienced it
episodic memory
memories of one's past, personal experiences
long term memory, part of the limbic system
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response
Mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
anterograde amnesia
loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory before the events that caused the amnesia
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
Retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source of an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. This and misinformation effect. is at the heart of many false memories
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
a mental image or best example of a category
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
convergent thinking
looks at obtaining one solution to a problem, less creative, one problem = one solution
divergent thinking
more often associated with creativity and creative thinking because it seeks to find several different solutions to the same problem.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees to solve a particular problem. Contracts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone-use of heuristics
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
Confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
the inability to see a problem from a different perspective, by employing a different mental set. According to Freud, a lingering focus on pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
Mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
Representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of an event in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
the way an issue is prosed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
our spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
in language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix)
Telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram- "go car"- using mostly nouns and verbs
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
impairment of language, damage to the left or right hemispheres of the brain
Broca's area
controls language expression- an area usually in the left frontal lobe, that directs the muscle movements involving speech
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Linguistic influence
the idea that language affects thought
mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
general intelligence (g)
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exception specific skill (ex. drawing)
a personality trait characterized by perseverance and passion for achieving long-term goals.
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions
intelligence test
a method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
achievement test
tests designed to assess what a person has learned
aptitude test
tests designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (IQ = (ma/ca) *100); on contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on 2 halves of the test, or on retesting
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is suppose to
content validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
predictive validity
also called Criterion-Realted validity;the success which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores the criterion behavior
crystallized intelligence
our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
Cross-sectional study
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period