Unit 3 - Learning

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52 Terms
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decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
mere exposure effect
repeated exposure to stimuli increases liking of them
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning and eventually become conditioned stimulus
UCS vs. CS
UCS triggers normal response (UCR) without any experience required
UCR vs. CR
UCR is not learned and CR is learned
classical conditioning equation
NS+UCS = UCR --> repeat --> NS becomes CS --> CS causes CR without UCS
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli (ex. salivating for both a bell and a tone)
learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other similar stimuli
When one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response
occurs when CR does not follow a CS anymore so the CS is diminished
spontaneous recovery
learned behavior recovers from a period of extinction
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened through reinforcement or diminished through punishment
positive reinforcement
Add reward to increase behavior (ex. give candy when you make a shot)
negative reinforcement
Taking away or stopping something to increase behavior (ex. stop the annoying beeping if you develop good habit of putting on seatbelt)
positive punishment
Adding undesirable stimulus to decrease behavior (ex. adding a slap if you lie)
negative punishment
Removal of a stimulus to decrease behavior (ex. taking away phone if late to class)
not based on performance
fixed ratio example
coupon for every $100 spent
variable ratio example
fixed interval example
variable interval example
pop quizzes
primary reinforcers
innately reinforcing stimulus so there's no learning necessary to crave something (ex. food, water, etc.)
secondary reinforcers
a stimulus that reinforces a behavior after it has been associated with a primary reinforcer, so learning is necessary (ex. grades, money, etc.)
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior (ex. give a treat when dog almost does a handshake)
Thorndike's Law of Effect
responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated
Instinctive drift
the tendency of learned behavior to gradually revert to biologically predisposed patterns (ex. dog that is trained to not bark at guests might naturally bark if under stress)
Latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it (ex. food must be placed in maze to show that rats know how to navigate the maze)
Cognitive maps
An internal representation of the spatial relationships between objects in an animal's surroundings
Insight learning
mental rearrangement of problem to achieve a sudden understanding of a solution
Emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction (ex. listening to favorite music to comfort yourself after failing a test)
Problem-focused coping
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor (ex. find ways to improve grade after failing test)
Learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
External locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
Internal locus of control
the perception that you control your own fate
Observational learning
learning by observing others
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
founder of classical conditioning (salivating dog experiment)
Behaviorist who made an experiment that made Albert scared of animals due to classical conditioning
Person known for operant conditioning and Skinner box
Person known for observational learning --> Bobo dolls and aggressiveness
Person known for latent learning and cognitive maps (rats and mazes)
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs (rapid learning but not realistic)
Partial/intermittent reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time (slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than continuous reinforcement)
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
prosocial modeling
modeling behaviors intended to benefit or improve the well-being of another individual or group of individuals
antisocial modeling
modeling of negative behaviors
based on performance
biological preparedness
biological predisposition to learn associations that have survival value (ex. fearing snakes when they have historically been known to harm humans)