Anthro 243 Exam 3

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What is an infectious disease?
Microorganisms that use a hosts resources to reproduce, resulting in an immune response or physiological disruption
What is the name for microorganisms that cause disease?
What are the 6 major groups of infectious pathogens?
viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, helminths, prions
How much do infectious diseases contribute to global mortality?
~25% of deaths
What group is most affected by infectious diseases?
What is an epidemic?
an increase in incidence of infection in a population at a specific time
What is a zoonotic disease?
an infectious disease caused by pathogens that spread between animals (usually vertebrates) and humans
What is virulence?
the severity of a disease brought on by a pathogen
Koch's postulates
Pathogen must always be found in persons with disease Pathogen must be isolated and grown in pure culture The culture should cause the disease when introduced into a healthy individual Pathogen can be isolated from second individual and grown in culture
DNA or RNA surrounded by protein, obligate parasites, mimic host cell proteins in order to bind with receptors or
Why do we still have infectious diseases?
pathogens reproduce more quickly than hosts and thus evolve fast
single celled prokaryotic organisms, reproduce by duplicating their DNA and dividing
What is the germ theory of disease?
specific microscopic organisms are the cause of specific diseases
single celled eukaryotic organisms, able to evade hosts immune defenses
Growth and reproductive stages in different organs, intermediate species, insect vectors, intracellular
any agent which carries and transmits an infectious pathogen into another living organism
eukaryotic organisms, 70,000 species (only few are harmful to humans)
Helminths (worms)
multicellular organisms 3 cause disease in humans, infect 50% of the current population
Infectious proteins, no RNA or DNA, transmissible through exposure to brain tissue and spinal cord fluid
How are pathogens spread?
direct transmission, droplet transmission
intermediate species or material that can take a pathogen from one host to another
Factors favoring higher virulence
intermediary disease vectors, transmission does not require host to be mobile
Factors favoring selection for lower virulence
casual human-to-human transmission, transmission requires host to be mobile
First lines of defense against pathogens
skin, mucous membranes
Functions of the immune system
recognize pathogens (which cells require an immunological response and which do not), destroy pathogen, communicate between cells of immune system to coordinate 1 and 2
Adaptive system
vertebrates only, responds slowly, high specificity of pathogen recognition
Innate system
older, most multicellular organisms, responds quickly, broad pathogen recognition, destroys pathogens
white blood cells, which are key cells of the immune system; includes t-cells and b-cells
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
a set of genes that produce highly variable proteins involved in moving pieces of pathogenic proteins out to the surface of the cell where they can be recognized by T-cells. Also referred to as the human leukocyte antigens.
bits of proteins on cell surfaces that are identified by the host's immune system and possibly marked for distribution by immune cells
any large molecule or cell that contains epitopes on its surface
antigen-receptor proteins on the surface of B-cells. there are five classes of antibodies, each with a different function: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM
a combination of two drugs that are made in bone marrow and that produce antibodies
cells of the immune system that are made in the thymus gland
What are allergies?
immune system reaction to foreign substances in the environment that are harmless to most people
chronic disease of the branches of the windpipe (bronchial tubes)
What happens during an asthma attack?
the lining of the bronchial tubes swells, causing narrow and reducing the flow of air into and out of the lungs
Hygiene hypothesis
improvements to hygiene results in fewer childhood diseases, altering the development on the immune system
Helminth ('Old Friends") hypothesis
reduced exposure to helminths may result in underdeveloped or overactive immune systems
the administration of antigenic material to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen
Passive immunity
uses pre-formed antibodies from other individuals
Active Immunity
provokes the immune system to generate memory cells which provide long-term protection against pathogens
Primary response
plasma cells secrete large amounts of antibodies and tag the vaccine material for destruction by other cells of the immune system
Secondary response
antibodies tag the pathogen for destruction by other cells of the immune system
Relative poverty
based on a comparison of poor people with others in society
Absolute poverty
based on subsistence, minimum standard needed to live
SES gradient
every step downward in SES correlates with poorer health
Socioeconomic status (SES)
a composite measure that includes income, occupation, education, and housing conditions
Whitehall studies
significant differences in risk of many diseases and mortality
Stress response
Physiological and endocrinological reactions that allow organisms to adaptively respond to stressors
Autonomic nervous system
immediate stress response mobilizes energy resources to muscle cells, increases heart rate, bp, respirations and mental activity
Hormonal stress response
activation of the sympathetic nervous system provides a mechanisms for immediate action
Stress and cardiovascular disease
chronic release of epinephrine raises blood pressure, leads to heart attacks
When are stress responses activated?
more likely to be activated when individuals feel as if they have limited control over stressors, have no predictive information about the duration and intensity of the stressor, have few outlets for frustration, interpret the stressor as evidence of circumstances worsening
the ways in which "normal" function is maintained under different circumstances
a steroid hormone made from cholesterol that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, regulates the stress response
Allostatic load
the consequences of prolonged activation of the stress response, which usually are negative health outcomes
Fight or flight
the stress response is adaptive in an emergency
the tendency of the body to maintain a constant internal environment in response to environmental changes
the physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to stressors
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
the interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands; results in the production of cortisol.
Why are races not useful biological categories?
race is not biology, but race BECOMES biology
Scientific racism
the use of scientific evidence or techniques to support or justify the belief in racial inferiority or superiority