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119 Terms
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Spiritual Self
- one of the three sections of self according to WILLIAM JAMES
Spiritual Self
- It is the most intimate, inner subjective part of the self. (GREEN, 1997)
Spiritual Self
- It is the most intimate version of the self because of the satisfaction experience when one thinks one's ability to argue and discriminate, of one's moral sensibility and conscience of our unconquerable will is more pure than all other sentiments of satisfaction. (GREEN, 1997)
A set of cultural beliefs an practices that usually includes some or all of basic characteristics. (REBECCA STEIN, 2011)
Spiritual Self
The choice of religious belief lies within the ____________.
Ritual (PENNER, 2017)
It is the performance of ceremonial acts prescribed by a tradition or sacred law. (PENNER, 2017)
It is a specific, observable mode of behavior exhibited by all known societies. Thus, it is possible to view ritual as a wat of defining or describing humans.
1. a feeling or emotion of respect, awe, fascination, or dread in relation to the sacred. 2. dependence upon a belief system that is usually expressed in the language of myth and; 3. is symbolic in relation to its reference
3 Fundamental Characteristics of Ritual (PENNER, 2017)
Major World Religions
- It teaches that life is unsatisfactory. - When experience is unsatisfying, we tend to crave pleasant experiences and avoid disappointing ones.
1 ethics 2 meditation 3 wisdom
The Buddha taught that way to break this cycle is to practice (1)__________ and (2)__________, and to cultivate (3)__________ which is a deep understanding and acceptance of things they are.
Meditation practices can be divided into two:
- practices develop calm, concentration, and positive emotion
- practices aim at developing insight into reality
Dharma, the Buddha's teaching
Developing and cultivating wisdom happens through studying and reflecting the _______________.
Important Events of Buddhists
The term "__________ " was coined as recently as the 19th century to cover a wide range of ancient creeds, textual traditions, and religious groups.
- is best understood as a complete way of life, a path of sanctification and discipline that leads to a higher level of consciousness.
Hindus revere a body of texts as a sacred scriptures known as the __________ .
The main festivals celebrated by Hindus:
The Festival of Lights
- nine nights which celebrate the triumph of good over evil. - this takes place TWICE A YEAR
It is an Arabic word which means willing submission to God.
It is an Arabic word which means one God.
The root of the word Islam comes from a word meaning __________ and Muslim believe it is the way of peace laid down in the Quran.
5 pillars that represent the foundation of Islamic worship and practice:
Eid ul-Fitr
The end of Ramadan marks the beginning of the festival of ___________.
Eid ul-Adha
- coincides with the completion of the Hajj and unites the whole Islamic community
study and interpretation of the Torah
- is an integral part of Jewish life
Semitic Tribe
The Jewish people believe to be descended from a _____________.
(1) Canaan (2) Middle East
Semitic tribe is originated in the land of (1)____________ in the (2)____________
1. The New Year (Rosh Hashanah) 2. The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) 3. The Passover (Pesach) 4. Pentecost (Shavuot) 5. Tabernacles (Sukkot)
The five festivals on which observant Jews are forbidden to work:
_____________ or The New Year Day: falls in the autumn
_____________ or The Day of Atonement: the most solemn day of the year
1. Passover : PESACH 2. Pentecost: SHAVUOT 3. Tabernacles: SUKKOT
3 Pilgrim Festivals in Jews
_____________ or Passover occurs during spring
_____________ or Pentecost occurs seven weeks later after the spring
_____________ or Tabernacles takes place in the autumn
Dr. Viktor E. Frankl
Another extensive study of self can be found in the works of __________________________.
Viktor E. Frankl validate a revolutionary approach to psychotherapy known as _____________.
Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy
Logotherapy has become known as the "__________________________" after that of SIGMUND FREUD & ALFRED ADLER.
1. By creating a work or doing a deed 2. By experiencing something or encountering someone 3. By the attitude we take toward unavailable suffering
According to logotherapy, meaning can be discovered in three ways:
1. Purposeful work 2. Courage in the face of difficulty 3. Love
Frankl's Sources of Meaning
The human entity is consist of _____________, _____________, and _____________.
Logotherapy Assumptions
All psychotherapies make philosophical assumptions about human person that cannot be proved with certainty.
1. People have a will to meaning 2. People have freedom under all circumstances to activate will to find meaning 3. Life has a demand quality to which people must respond if decisions are to be meaningful
Life has meaning under all circumstances, even the most miserable.
Online Identity
- It is a social identity that an Internet user establishes in online communities and websites. - It can also be considered as an actively constructed presentation of oneself.
- is the process of controlling how one is perceived by other people.
Goffman, E. (1959) and Leary, M. R. (1995)
According to _____________ and _____________, self-presentation is the process of controlling how one is perceived by other people.
Selective Self-Presentation
- is the process of creating a digital artefact which is carefully chosen representation or expression of one's real world self.
Selective Self-Presentation
- explains why our behavior can change if we are being watched or observed.
Impression Management
It is a conscious or subconscious process in which people attempt to influence the perceptions of other people about a person, object, or event. It is applied at first in face-to-face communication or interaction, but today it's also applied in computer-mediated communication.
DR. TIM BONO, author of When Likes Aren’t Enough
"When we derive a sense of worth based on how we are doing relative to others, we place our happiness in a variable that is completely beyond our control." It was explained by ______________.
1. Watch your thoughts 2. Speak to others about the way you are feeling 3. Focus on what you have
BELK (2013)
_______________ explained that sharing ourselves is no longer new and has been practiced as soon as human beings were formed but digital devices help us share more information broadly, than ever before.
Facebook and other social media applications are now a key part of self-presentation for one-sixth of humanity. As a result, researchers and participants become concerned with actively managing identity and reputation and warning against the phenomenon of _____________.
1. Stick to safer sites 2. Guard your passwords 3. Limit what you share 4. Remember that anything you put online or post on a site is there forever, even if you try to delete it. 5. Do not be mean or embarrass other people online. 6. Always tell if you see strange or bad online behavior. 7. Be choosy about your online friends. 8. Be patient.
Additional guidelines for the proper sharing of information and ethical use of the internet (NEW, 2014)
- is the legal status of being of a country and social conduct that refers to the duties and responsibilities that come with being a member of a community.
- is what identifies somebody or something, this could be the name or essential self or the set of characteristics that somebody recognizes as belonging uniquely to himself or herself and constitutes his or her individual personality for life.
- refers to the sameness, the fact, or the condition of being the same or exactly alike.
- is seen as the most fundamental aspect of a nation, as such, it is concerned with the country and articulation of its decrees, dogma, and by-laws. In short, it is a sense of national identity and belongingness.
1. Loyalty 2. Obedience and Law Abiding 3. Honesty 4. Assertiveness 5. Carrying out Advocacy 6. Environment Stewardship 7. Gender Sensitivity
Qualities of a Filipino Citizen and Identity
Identity Construction
- is also formed through institutional factors, which is the interplay of community organizations that come into the life of any Filipino citizen in one’s lifetime from womb to tomb. These may be in form of a church, government organization, non-government people’s organizations, or social media and which may influence one’s Filipino identity and citizenship.
"cognitive and motivational basis for the elaboration of beliefs and behaviors"
The construction of community identity and values from the psychosocial perspective that the individual’s claim to citizenship may mean that persons relate themselves to a group of others who also see themselves as a citizen served as a _____________________________________. (MARCH & OLSEN, 1995)
- is the free and equal representation of people and the right of every person to participate in the government by electing their representatives by majority and popular casting of votes
Jimmy Carter Speech to parliament of India June 2, 1978
“Democracy is like the experience of life itself – always changing, infinite in its variety, sometimes turbulent and all the more valuable for having been tested for adversity”
Democratic Nation
- is a country that has elected government freely and equally by all its members, whereby decisions are made based on the participatory principle of good governance.
A Greek word which means the "people".
A Greek word which means "rule"
March & Olsen shortened description of DEMOCRACY
- "the commitment to individual freedom and the person’s obligation to utilize such freedom, the idea of national sovereignty and political equality, the necessity of a legal system to ensure stability and protection from arbitrary acts and decisions, and lastly the belief in the power of human rationality, in particular and decisions and choice,” (DIOKNO, 2012).
Filipinos must know how democracy really works
Lessens the country’s problems as they will become responsible and enthusiastic as well
Government officials and the public need to help each other
Many heads are better than one
Self-help at the barangay level
Encourages initiatives and wide – ranged decision making
Many centers of power
Prevents power from being concentrated in a small group to the exclusion of the majority
Affirmation of civil rights
They have the right to choose as well as to have freedom of speech and assembly
Emphasis on economic rights and social responsibility
Gives the right to vote and gives the privileges to gain all things we worked for
Address poverty calls
Equality reasons and knows how to share
Stop corruption
It might help if the salaries of NGOs and private organization (POs) are increased; Financial literacy empowerment
No more partimonialism
By being a researcher, it allows discovery of new and better leader for the future; Have your criteria in selecting government officials
Knows the majority majority-win-rule and applies it in lives
Improve quality education in the country
Education is the key to innovation and critical thinking
Log control
Floods affect sources of income and has a domino effect on our economy
Leaders should be honest enough
To be able to serve the country
Equality of rich and poor in terms of rights
Equal democratic right and should not be based on the standards or social way of living
Economic and political powers need to be dispersed
No one individual or group exerts undue influence over the decision of others
- is commonly defined as thinking about thinking. It is the awareness of the scope and limitations of your content knowledge and skills.
- enables the person to adapt their existing knowledge and skills to approach a learning task, seeking for the optimum result of the learning.
- is also not limited to the thinking process of the individual. It also includes keeping one’s emotions and motivations while learning in check.
(1) Self-Appraisal (2) Self-Management
Metacognition basically has two aspects:
- is your personal reflection on your knowledge and capabilities.
Self Management
- is the mental process you employ using what you have in planning and adapting to successfully learn or accomplish a certain task.
metacognitive knowledge metacognition regulation
elements of metacognition
1. personal variable 2. task variable 3. strategy variable
Variables that affect how you know or assess yourself as a thinker under metacognitive knowledge
Personal Variable
- is your evaluation of your strengths and weaknesses in learning.
Task Variable
- is what you know or what you think about the nature of the task, as well as what strategies the task requires.
Strategy Variable
- refers to what strategies or skills you already have in dealing with certain tasks.
1. Knowing your limits 2. Modifying your approach 3. Skimming 4. Rehearsing 5. Self-test
Skills that can help in exercising metacognition
metacognitive knowledge
- what you know about how you think
metacognition regulation
- how you adjust your thinking processes to help you learn better
1. tacit learners 2. aware learners 3. strategic learners 4. reflective learners
four types of metacognitive learners
tacit learners
- are unaware of their metacognitive processes although they know the extent of their knowledge.
aware learners
- know some of their metacognitive strategies but they do not plan on how to use these techniques.
strategic learners
- strategize and plan their course of action toward a learning experience.
reflective learners
- reflect on their thinking while they are using the strategies and adapt metacognitive skills depending on their situation.
Self-efficacy theory
- is based on the assumption that psychological procedures serve as a means of creating and strengthening expectations of personal efficacy.
Outcome expectancy
- is a person’s estimate that a given behavior will lead to certain outcomes
Efficacy expectation
- is the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes
deal with a potentially averse situation.
Increasing a person’s self-efficacy increases their ability to __________________.
1. Performance accomplishments or mastery experience; 2. Vicarious experiences; 3. Verbal or social persuasion; and 4. Physiological (somatic and emotional) states.
There are four main sources of influence by which a person’s self-efficacy is developed and maintained as described by Bandura.
_____________ defined self-efficacy as people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that excursive influence over events that affect their lives. He also identified acts of people with high assurance in their capabilities.
1. Approach difficult task as challenges to be mastered; 2. Set challenging goals and maintain commitment to them; 3. Heighten or sustain efforts in the faces of failures or setbacks; 4. Attribute failure to insufficient effort or deficient knowledge and skills which are acquirable; and 5. Approach threatening situations with assurance that they can exercise control over them
Bandura identified act of people with high assurance in their capabilities such as:
1. Shy away from task they view as personal threats; 2. Have low aspirations and weak commitment to goals they choose to pursue.; 3. Dwell on personal efficiencies, obstacles they will encounter and all kinds of adverse outcomes rather than concentrating on how to perform successfully.; 4. Slacken their efforts and give up quickly in the face of difficulties; 5. Are slow to recover their sense of efficacy following failure or setbacks; and 6. Fall easy victim to stress and depression.
In contrast, people who doubt their capabilities:
1. fixed mind-set individuals 2. growth mind-set individuals
Dweck described people with two mind sets.
fixed mind-set individuals
- dread failure because it is negative statement on their basic abilities.
growth mind-set individuals
- do not mind or fear failure as much because they realize their performance can be improved and learning comes from failure. - are more likely to continue working hard despite setbacks while individuals with fixed mindsets can be affected by subtle.
Locke’s Goal Setting Theory
It is about finding the relationship between conscious performance goals and performance on work tasks. The basic contents of the goal-setting theory are summarized in terms of 14 categories.
Energy, Faith, Focus Formula
- claimed that a person can have, be, create, or do anything he/she wants. - equates Energy or End Result as a function of one’s Faith and the amount of Focus he or she puts into it.
1. Filipinos must know how democracy really works 2. Government officials and the public need to help each other. 3. Self-help at the barangay level 4. Many centers of power 5.Affirmation of civil rights 6. Emphasis on economic rights and social responsibility 7.Address poverty calls 8. Stop corruption 9. No more partimonialism 10. Personalism 11. Improve quality education in the country 12. Log control 13. Leaders should be honest enough 14. Equality of rich and poor in terms of rights 15. Economic and political powers need to be dispersed
Keys to establishing a culture of democracy
1. The more difficult the goal, the greater the achievement. 2. The more specific or explicit the goal, the more precisely performance is required. 3. Goals are both specific and difficult lead to the higher performance. 4. Comment to goal is more critical when goals are specific and difficult. 5. High commitment to goals are attained when: a. The individual is convinced that the goal is important. b. The individual is convinced that the goal is attainable. 6. Having a direct effect on performance , self-efficacy influences: a. The difficulty level of the goal chosen or affected.; b. Commitment tp goals; c. The response to negative feedback; and d. The choice of task. 7. Goal setting is most effective when there is feedback that shows progress in relation to goals. 8. Goal setting mediates the effect of knowledge of past performance on subsequent performance. 9. Goals affect performance by affecting the direction of action , the degree of effort exerted and persistence of action over time. 10. Goals stimulate planning in general.
Locke’s Goal Setting Theory 14 Categories