AP Euro Unit 1 Vocab

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a person who gives financial or other support to a person, organization, cause, or activity
A focus on human nature and achievements- movement away from the scholasticism and theology of middles ages and church
Refocus of education on the humanities (philosophy, law, speech, language, logic) the principle of separation of the state from religious institutions (focus on the here and now and material pleasures rather than the afterlife)
The style of painting and drawing practiced by artists in Northern Europe during the early part of the sixteenth century
Conquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella
Enforcement of Catholicism by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Antisemitism (one of largest populations in Europe) Loss of skilled workers
common language
Civic Humanism
The belief that individuals owe a service to their community and its government
A style in art and music lasting from 1600 to 1750 characterized by the use of drama and motion to create heightened emotion, especially prevalent in Catholic countries
Concordat of Bologna
Pope to receive all income made by Catholic Church in France French kings may select their bishops and abbots
Court of Star Chamber
unfair trials (convict nobles of crimes) helps reduce noble power
Appointing friends/relatives to positions
A document issued by the Catholic Church lessening penance or time in purgatory, widely believed to bring forgiveness of all sins
Act of Supremacy
Parliment declares Henry supreme head of church in England Dissolves Catholic monasteries Still fairly Catholic but allows for divorce
Council of Trent
Will not change- salvation comes from faith and good works, 7 sacraments need to be followed, authority comes from the bible and Catholic authorities) Reform abuses of church practices Take action against Hersey (creation of Jesuits and prohibit books)
Jesuit Order
To counter reformations Educate (universities) Convert non-believers and stamp out hersey
Growing Calvinist population in France were called
Political concerns higher than religious concerns
Edict of Nantes
Catholicism is offical religion of France Protestants(Huguenots) will be tolerated under most circumstances (have church in countrysides and can worship in the privacy of their own homes)
Peace of Augsburg
settlement of Charles V amdthe Lutheran Princes Whoever reigns, his religion (has to be either Catholic or Lutheran
Defenestration of Prague
Incident of Bohemian resistance to Habsburg authority that preceded the beginning of the Thirty Years War with the throwing of catholic officals out of a window in prague.
Edict of Restitution
Return of land by Protestants Protestants given rights except Lutherans who were deprived of religious/political rights (attempts to restore peace)
Light and maneuverable ships
Muslims in Spain who had converted to Christianity Skilled workers
Treaty of Tordesillas
An agreement between Spain and Portugal, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered land in the east of the line would belong to Portugal
Encomienda System
Spanish system intended to employ natives as labor in exchange for food, shelter, and Christianization
A family that turned Florence into banking and cultural center of Europe. Double entry bookkeeping and letters of credit and bills of exchange
Francesco Petrarch
Father of humanism- recovery and use of classical texts would bring Golden Age of intellectual achievement
Baldassare Castiglione
Wrote the Courtier- train and fashion young men into ideal gentlemen spread humanism to England and France
Nicole Machiavelli
Invented Civil Humanism introduced new concepts of the state: stressed the need for strong ruler to achieve political unity (not ruled by church institutions or self proclaimed monarchy) Based on Greek and Roman political institutions ->politically engaged citizenry Wrote The Prince-practical guide to politics and had secular views
Desiderius Erasmus
Responsible for the translation of bible in Greek Wrote The Praise of Folly-addressed issues within church that needed to be fixed wrote The Education of a Christian Prince- formation of a rulers character through study or classics and bible
Thomas More
Wrote Utopia (revival of Plato's Republic)- ideal society with emphasis on education (especially for women), social equity, and rationality
Johann Gutenburg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and first to use a printing press
Ferdinand and Isabella
Spain's king and queen and funded Christopher Columbus
John Wycliffe
(England) Final authority is Bible (not pope) Must read Bible themselves->translated to English If not mention in the Bible, then must not do it
John Tetzel
Preacher who sold indulgences to raise money for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica
Henry VIII
"Defender of Faith" Had six wives
Mary I
First daughter of Henry VIII Second ruler of England Makes England Catholic (Bloody Mary-leads to growth of Puritans)
Elizabeth I
Second daughter of Henry VIII Third ruler of England Comes to power after Mary (religious settlements with Catholics) Defeats Spanish Armada
Edward VI
First son of Henry VII First ruler of England Church becomes more Protestant
Charles V
was ruler of both HRE and Spanish empire Devoted Catholic, and sought to stop Protestantism
Gustavus Aldolphus
Lutheran King of Sweden Invaded HRE Father of modern warfair
Cardinal Richelieu
Wants to weaken Habsburg and gain power (no intrest in weakening religion) Declared war on Spain after Adolphus dies supported by Sweden
Prince Henry II
sponsored voyages
Vasco da Gama
1st voyager to India