A person's unique long-term patter of thinking, emotions, and behavior. (Consistency on who you are, have been and will become)
The person has been evaluated not described
Hereditary aspects of your personality (Sensitivity, Irritability, etc.)
Stable qualities thst a person shows in most situations.
Study of inherited behavioral traits
People who have several traits in common
Who proposed people were Either introverts or extroverts?
The mental "picture" you have of your own personality
Based on an accurate appraisal of your strengths and weaknesses (Positive self-evaluation that is bestowed too easily may not be healthy)
System of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to explain personality
Attempt to learn what traits makeup for personality and how they relate to actual behavior.
Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles
Behavioristic and social learning theories
Place importance on the external environment and on the effects of conditioning and learning.
Stress private, subjective experience, and personal growth
Current dominant method for studying personality
Objectives of trait theory
Predicting behavior, describing people
Knowing how you rate on a single dimension would allow us to predict behavior in a variety of settings
Analyze, classify, and interrelate traits
Characteristics shared by most members of a culture
Describe a person's unique qualities
Basic traits that all of a person's activities can be traced to the trait
Basic building blocks of personality
Superficial personal qualities
Visible features of personality
Traits clustered together, deeper characteristics. The core of each individual's personality.
(Cattell) Factor analysis
A statistical technique used to correlate multiple measurements and identify general underlying factors
Source traits are measured by
the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF)
System that identifies the five most basic dimensions of personality.
External circumstances influence the expression of a personality trait
Actions are based on hidden, or unconscious, thoughts, needs, and emotions
Freud's personality model is composed by
The id, the ego, and the superego
Innate biological instincts and urges, operates on the pleasure principle
Energy for the entire psyche, or personality
System of thinking, planning, problem solving, and deciding. Conscious control of the persionality and often delays action.
Judge or censor for the thoughts and actions of the ego.
Reflects actions for which a person has been punished
Reflects all behavior one's parents approved of or rewarded. Source of goals and aspirations.
Impulses from the id when the ego can barely keep them under control
Threats of punishment from the superego
Mental processes that deny, distort, or otherwise block out sources of threat and anxiety
Holds repressed memories and emotions, plus the instinctual drives of the id
Contains material that can be easily brought to awareness
Everything you are aware of at a given moment including thoughts, perceptions, feelings, and memories
According to Freud the core of personality is formed
before age 6 in a series of psychosexual stages
Area capable of producing pleasure
First year of life
Gullible and passive and need lots of attention
Cynical adults who exploit others
Ages 1 and 3, shifts the process of elimination
Anal-retentive (Holding on)
Obstinate, stingy, orderly, and compulsively clean
Disorderly, destructive, cruel, or messy
Ages 3 and 6
Vanity, exhibitionism, sensitive pride, and narcissism
Son attraction to his Mother
Daugther attraction to her father
Age 6 to puberty. Quiet time during which psychosexual development is dormant.
Genital Stage (Puberty)
Upswing in sexual energies activates all the unresolved conflicts of earlier years.
Genital stage (Adolescence)
Growing capacity for responsible social-sexual relationships
Why was Freud's theory influential?
1. Pioneered that early life shapes adulthood
2. Identified feeding, toilet training, and early sexual experiences as critical events.
3. Proposed development proceeds through series of stages.
Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Otto Rank, and Erich Fromm
Adler believed that
We are social creatures governed by social urges, not by biological instincts. The main driving force is a striving for superiority. We try to compensate for limitations. this creates a unique style of life, and our core style is formed by age 5.
(Adler) Creative self
Humans create their personalities through choices and experiences.
(Horney) Basic anxiety
When people feel isolated and helpless in a hostile world
Move towards others
Depending on them for love, support, or friendship
Move away from others
Withdrawing, acting like a "loner", or being "strong" and independent
Move against others
Attacking, competing with, or seeking power over them
Horney believed that
emotional health, reflects a blance in moving toward, away from, and against others
"Public self" presented to others
(Jung) Ego may reflect attitudes of
introversion or of extroversion
Mental storehouse for a single individual's experiences, feelings, and memories
Mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans
Female Principle. Unconscious idealized image of women
Regarded as the most important of all by Jung, represents unity
A striving for completion and unity.
Behavioral personality theories
Emphasize that personality is no more than a collection of learned behavior patterns
External causes of our actions
Situations that have effects on our behavior
John Dollard and Neal Miller (1950) habits...
Make up the structure of personality
Any stimulus strong enough to goad a person to action
Signals from the environment
Social learning theory
Explaining personality through the combination of learning principles, modeling, thought patterns, perceptions, expectations, beliefs, goals, emotions, and social relationships
How the person interprets or defines the situation
Concept our actions are affected by and that making a response will lead to reinforcement
We attach different subjective values to various activities or rewards
Capacity for producing a desired result
Praising or rewarding yourself for having made a particular response
Praise, attention, or approval from others
Dollard and Miller childhood critical situations
- Toilet or cleanliness training
- Sex training
- Learning to express anger or agression
If fed when they cry
Child is encouraged to actively manipulate their parents
If the child's allowed to cry without being fed
the child learns to be passive
Permissiveness for sexual and aggressive behavior in childhood is linked to
adult needs for power
A desire to act like the admired person
They pay special attention to the fuller use of human potentials and they help bring balance to our overall views of personality
A positive image of what it means to be human
Human nature consists of
Traits, qualities, potentials, and behavior patterns most characteristic of the human species
Ability to choose that is not determined by genetics, learning, or unconscious forces
Private perceptions of reality
Major humanistic theorists
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
(Maslow, 1954) Self-actualization
The process of fully developing personal potentials
Characteristics of self-actualization
1. Efficient perceptions of reality
2. Comfortable acceptance of self, others, nature
4. Task centering
6. Continued freshness of appreciation
7. Fellowship with humanity
8. Profound interpersonal relationships
9. Comfort with solitude
10. Nonhostile sense of humor
11. Peak experiences
Steps taken to promote self-actualization
1. Be willing to change
2. Take responsibility
3. Examine your motives
4. Experience honestly and directly
5. Make use of positive experiences
6. Be prepared to be different
7. Get involved
8. Assess your progress
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
1. Physiological Needs
2. Safety needs
3. Belongingness and love needs
4. Esteem needs
First four levels
Need for self-actualization
Fully functioning person according to Rogers
They who live in ahrmony with their deepest feelings and impulses
Total subjective perception of your body and personality
Ideal self Incongruence
Ideal self congruence
Direct, gutlevel response to life that avoids the filtering and distortion of incongruence
Rogers believed that congruence and self-actualization are
encouraged by replacing conditions of worth with organismic valuing.
Direct questioning is used to learn about a person's life history, personality traits, or current mental state.
Conversation is informal and topics are taken up freely as they arise.
Information is gathered by asking a planned series of questions
Used to find out how a person is feeling and what complaints or symptoms they have.
Limitations of interviews
2. Influence interviewer new personality
3. Trying to deceive interviewers
4. Halo effect
Tendency to generalize a favorable (or unfavorable) impression to an entire personality
List of personality traits or aspects of behavior that can be used to evaluate a person
Counting the frequency of specific behaviors
Paper-and-pencil tests that reveal personality characteristics
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), composed of 567 items to which a test taker must respond true or false
Seek to uncover deeply hidden or unconscious wishes, thoughts and needs
Inkblot Test or Rorschach (ROAR-shock) Technique
Consists of 10 standardized inkblots. Used to identify personal conflicts and fantasies.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Consists of 20 sketches depicting various scenes and life situations