ap world unit 3

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30 Terms
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Qing Dynasty
last imperial dynasty of China; preceded by the Ming Dynasty and succeeded by the People's Republic; founded in 1644 by the Manchus and ruled China for more than 260 years, until 1912; expanded China's borders to include Taiwan, Tibet, Chinese Central Asia, and Mongolia.
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.
Mughal Empire
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; often had difficulties managing such a large, diverse empire
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Ottoman Empire
Islamic state of Turkic speaking peoples lasting from 1453-1922; conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453; based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople); encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
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A Shi'ite Muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the Persians, Ottomans, and Arabs.
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an Islamic West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the into the 16th century; eventually defeated by the Moroccans who were broke after fighting with Portugal
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'Selection' in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries (elite military units)
elite Ottoman guard (trained as foot soldiers or administrators) recruited from the Christian population through the devshirme system, that often converted to Islam; utilized gunpowder weapons
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class of salaried warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble called a daimyo (who in turned pledged loyalty to a shogun) in return for land or rice payments
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Divine Right
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
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absolute monarchy
system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
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Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility; late 17th-early 18th century (became his primary residence around 1670)
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Mughal empire's taxation system where decentralized lords collected tribute/taxes for the emperor
Taj Mahal
beautiful mausoleum (tomb) at Agra (India) built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife; illustrates syncretic blend between Indian and Arabic architectural styles
tax farming
tax-collection system utilized by the Ottoman Empire to generate money for territorial expansion; the government hired private individuals to collect taxes
Protestant Reformation
religious movement begun by German monk Martin Luther who began to question the practices of the Catholic Church beginning in 1519; split the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the 'protesters' forming several new Christian denominations: Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican Churches (among many others)
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95 Theses
arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517; ultimately led to Martin Luther's excommunication and the Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices; began the Protestant Reformation
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Counter/Catholic Reformation
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation; reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected), ended sale of indulgences and simony, created Jesuits missionaries, but also the began the Inquisition
Also known as the Society of Jesus; a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism (a result of the Counter Reformation); sent to China, Japan, and the New World to gain Catholic converts
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a pardon given by the Roman Catholic Church in return for repentance for sins and payment; "a way to reduce the amount of punishment one has to undergo for sins"
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the buying and selling of church offices, seen as a corrupt practice, this practice was outlawed by the Catholic Church during the Counter Reformation
Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy, a reaction to the Protestant Reformation
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Thirty Years War
a war that resulted from the Protestant Reformation (1618-1648 CE); occurred in the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain who supported Roman Catholicism; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia
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John Calvin
1509-1564. French theologian who developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism; attracted Protestant followers with his teachings; believed in predestination
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the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam; a result of the presence of the Mughal Empire in India
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Japanese system of government under a shogun (military warlord), who exercised actual power while the emperor was reduced to a figurehead
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Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai; owed allegiance to the shogun
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tax paid by Christians and Jews (and sometimes other faiths) who lived in Muslim communities to allow them to continue to practice their own religion; often utilized by Islamic states to manage diverse populations within their empires
Millet System
A system used by the Ottomans whereby subjects were divided into religious communities, with each millet (nation) enjoying autonomous self-government under its religious leaders; a unique way to manage a diverse empire