World War 1 Review Pt 4
Paris Peace Conference: The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied Powers where they discussed the peace terms and punishments for the Central Powers. Britain and France did not want to accept Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, so the Treaty of Versailles was formed as a compromise.
War Guilt: In World War II, Germany was blamed for the entire war, and given war guilt, meaning they would be held solely responsible to pay the 32 billion dollars in reparations. This was decided by the League of Nations in the Treaty of Versailles. Britain and France wanted to weaken Germany, but the US did not agree to the treaty, as Woodrow Wilson felt it was too harsh.
Weimar Republic: Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated on November 9, 1918. He was the last German Emperor, and the Weimar Republic took his place. It was the system of government until 1933, when Nazi Germany gained power. Many Germans disliked the Weimar Republic for signing the Treaty of Versailles, even though it was forced by the Allied Powers.
Sussex Pledge: The Sussex Pledge was a promise made by Germany to the USA in 1916. It stated that German U-boats would warn passenger ships to evacuate before sinking the vessel in unrestricted submarine warfare. They did this to try and keep the US out of WWI long enough to destroy Britain. Germany violated this agreement and killed 128 American passengers on the Lusitania, contributing to Wilson’s decision to join the war.
The Big Four: The Big Four were the main representatives who negotiated the treaty in Paris. They were Woodrow Wilson of the US, Georges Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of England, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. Russia was not represented, as they were experiencing the Russian Revolution.
League of Nations: The Treaty of Versailles created the League of Nations with the goal of keeping international peace. Though it was originally one of Wilson’s 14 points, the US practiced isolationism instead since it considered the decision to punish Germany too harsh. The League of Nations’ weaknesses were that it did not have the US, the most powerful country. It also did not have a military, ultimately making it useless.
Explain the Versailles Treaty including problems it caused: The Treaty of Versailles was a compromise between Germany and the Allied Powers and was signed five days after Franz Ferdinand’s assassination, on June 28, 1919. Britain and France didn’t want to accept Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points, since they were concerned about national security and wanted to strip Germany of its war-making power. The treaty created a League of Nations that was an international association aimed towards keeping peace. The Treaty of Versailles also punished Germany: They lost 10-13% of their land, had restricted military operations (100,000 soldiers), and were forced to take full responsibility of the war meaning they had to pay reparations to the Allies (a total of 32 billion $s).
Bolshevik Revolution: The Bolsheviks were a radical Marxist group led by Vladmir Ilyich Ulyanov. They gained power in 1917 when Lenin led a coup d’etat against the provisional government under the leadership of Alexander Kerensky. It started when armed factory workers stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd under the identity of the Bolshevik Red Guards. Civil War broke out between the BRG and the White Army, basically every other viewpoint including those who supported a czarist regime, democratic government, and even other forms of socialism. The Bolsheviks were successful and won the Russian Revolution in 1922.