The cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life”.
Cell structure specialised with a specific function
Basic functional & structural units in a living organism
Groups of cells of the similar structure carrying out the same function
Made from different tissues working together to perform specific functions
Groups of organs working together to carry out body functions
• Specialised cells are those which have developed certain characteristics in order to perform particular functions
Can be used to replace damaged cells, for example in people with Type 1 diabetes and those paralysed by spinal cord injuries or multiple sclerosis
There are ethical concerns regarding using and then destroying embryos
Bone marrow transplants are an example of an adult stem cell transplant and can be used to treat leukaemia and other blood cell cancers
Mutations can occur in stem cells cultured for several generations
Whole organs could be grown for transplants without the need to find a donor
It is impossible to obtain embryonic stem cells from a patient as they have to be collected before birth
If organs are made patients on stem cells they would be no need for tissue typing and no chance of organ rejection
Difficulty in finding suitable stem cell donors
There are 3 main types of organic molecule.
Which as you probably know is pretty much all we eat, Lipids being the fats and oils.
They are made of Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen.
Glucose is sugar and sugar is energy.
- 6 carbon atoms
- 12 hydrogen atoms
- 6 oxygen atoms
One sugar molecule - monosaccharide
Two sugar molecules joined together - disaccharide
Many sugar molecules joined together - polysaccharide.
They are composed of Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Nitrogen and follow less repetitive patterns, hence becoming so complicated.
Protein molecules are much more complicated.
Proteins are made up of strings of simpler amino acids
Lipids are made of Hydrogen, Carbon and Oxygen, but with much less oxygen than in glucose.
Differences can be seen between saturated and unsaturated fats.
Lipids are formed from smaller blocks of fatty acids and glycerol
Test for Glucose