Cycle 6 Chemistry

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Antoine Lavoisier
French Scientist Made a list of all 33 known elements at that time Broke into 4 categories
What are the 4 categories Antoine Lavoisier designated the elements to?
Gases Metals Non-Metals Earths
Dimitri Mendeleev
Arranged elements by increasing mass and putting elements that shared properties in columns Realized that there were undiscovered periodic elements Considered the Father of the Periodic Table
Henry Mosely
Arranges Elements by Atomic Number Created the Periodic Law
Elements in the same vertical column Otherwise known as families Numbered 1-18
Elements in the same horizontal row Numbered 1-7
Representative Elements
Elements in groups 1,2, and 13-18 (The Main Points of Reference for what we are doing)
Periodic Law
States that there is a periodic repetition of physical and chemical properties of the elements when arranged according to increasing atomic number
What are elements arranged by?
Increasing atomic number
Valence Electrons
Defined as electrons in the outermost orbitals of the atom
Shiny Solid at Room Temperature Good Conductors of heat Most elements are metals
Elements that are generally gases or brittle Poor conductors
Have physical and chemical properties of both elements 8 Metals
Group 1
Alkaline Metals Very Reactive
Group 2
Alkaline Earth Metals Very Reactive
Transition Metals
Similar Properties to other metals but do act a bit differently due to their partially filled subshells
Inner Transition Metals
The two columns at the bottom of the periodic table Lanthanides Actinides
Group 17
Halogens Highly reactive Very Close to becoming Noble Gases
Group 18
Noble Gasses Unreactive In a perfect state of balance
How are Groups generally identified?
By the element at the top of the group Ex. Carbon Family
S, D, P, F
Atoms of an element which gained or lost electrons
Atoms that gain electrons and become negatively charged. More electrons than protons Atoms get bigger as they gain more electrons
Atoms that lose electrons and become positively charged. Atoms get smaller as they give away their valence electron. More protons than Electrons
Why do Ions form?
To help increase stability of the atoms
Atomic Radius
The size of the atom is influenced by the number of electrons that an atom has. Atomic size is determined by how close an atom is to its neighboring atom. Definition: Half the distance between two equidistance nuclei
How is there an increase in atomic radius?
The atomic radius increases as you go to the left in the periodic table and down.
What occurs with more added Electrons?
Larger Orbital Size More Electron shielding
Indicates the relative ability of its atoms to attract electrons in a chemical bond
How is there an increase in electronegativity?
As you move more to the right and up.
Periodic Trend
Electronegativity increases as you move to the right More protons in the nucleus to attract electrons
Group Trend
Electronegativity increases as you go up Strong Attraction to electrons
Octet Rule
Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to achieve stability. Aka 8 valence electrons
Why is the Periodic Table called the Periodic Table?
This is because the Periodic Table is periodic, meaning there is a repeating pattern with it.
Ionic Bonds
IONIC BONDS FORM BETWEEN METALS AND NON-METALS Ionic Bonds from when atoms become ions
What are Ionic Compounds Called?
Formula Units
Formula Units
The chemical formula of anionic compounds that lists the ions in the lowest ratio that equals a neutral electric charge.
How are ions arranged?
In a Crystal Lattice Structure
Crystal Lattice Structure
A repeating pattern of positive and negatively charged ions
Qualities of the Crystal Lattice Structure
Maximizes attraction between positive and negative ions which equal strong bonds Presence of particular metal ions lead to different colors
What does Lattice energy do?
Relates the size and charge of the ions to the energy level needed to make the bond
Coulombs Law
Relates attraction to size and charge. Smaller atoms can be closer together and form stronger bonds. Larger atoms form smaller bonds that are weaker
Ionic Solids
Do not conduct electricity Charged ions can't flow and make a current
Ionic Solutions
When dissolved in water, they become electrolytes Conduct electricity very well Ions are separated and mixed
Properties of Ionic Compounds
Melting Point- Temperature that solids turn to liquids Ionic compounds have a very high melting point because of strong ionic bonds Boiling Point- Temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas. Ionic Compounds have a high boiling point
Ionic Compound Properties
Hard- Ionic Compounds in the solid form are hard because of strong ionic bonds that hold them together Brittle- Ionic Solids, despite being hard, are brittle of impacted with enough force.
What occurs everytime there is a chemical reaction?
Bonds are broken or made energy is either absorbed or released
Energy is absorbed by the chemical reaction
Energy is released by the chemical reaction THE FORMATION OF IONIC BONDS ARE ALWAYS EXOTHERMIC
Polyatomic Ions
Ions made with more than one atom bonded together These ions are charged molecules Act as a group
Metallic Bonds
Metals are not ionically bonded but share several properties with ionic compounds. Metals are arranged in crystal lattice structures in their solid states. The attraction between the positive metal cations and the negatively charged sea of electrons
Electronic Sea Model
The primary explanation for metallic bonding. Metals are described as having Localized metal cations (positively charged) Delocalized valence electrons (negatively charged)
What does the Electron Sea Model propose?
All metals contribute to their valence electrons to form a sea of electrons. The delocalized electrons are free to move around the metal cations.
How is the strength of a metallic bond regulated?
Related to the number of valence electrons contributed by the metal atom. The more valence electrons, the stronger the metallic bond.
Metals are able to be hammered or rolled into thin sheets Ex. Aluminum foil
Metals are able to be drawn into thin wires
Mixtures of metals that have unique properties.
Substitutional Alloys
Alloys capable of taking the place of other metals because of their similar properties
Interstitial Alloys
Intertwined within the solids. In the smaller places electrons would reside in, but not as small as an electron.
How does Electron Configurations relate to the Periodic Table?
The last number in an electron configuration will match up to whatever PERIOD an element is in.
Atomic Size
Defined by how closely an atom lies to a neighboring atom ATOMIC SIZE AND ATOMIC RADIUS ARE DIFFERNENT
What happens when atoms gain electrons?
They become bigger
Involving the shielding of electrons and their charge from the nucleus of an atom.
Nuclear Charge
Can pull electrons closer to the nucleus of an atom. The stronger it is, the more electrons can be pulled.
Unit Cell
The smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice structure that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal; a small representative that is part of a whole