In sickness and in Health

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100 Terms
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Do substances move into and out of cells?
What is homeostasis
the ability for organisms to maintain a steady sate when the external environment changes
what are examples of homeostasis
sweating or shivering
what is set point?
a normal or target value
what is normal range?
a range of values, around the target value, that are normal or healthy
knowt flashcard image
what system closely monitors and coordinates
the endocrine system and the nervous system
what does the nervous system control
all body activities
what does the endocrine system do
it secretes hormones that regulate activities that the nervous system controls
what does the organ system do
it supplies body cells with all the substances, they also keep temperature pH, and other conditions at the optimal levels
what is the respiratory system
high concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood --> triggers faster breathing --> lungs exhale more --> removes carbon dioxide from the body fast
what is the excretory system
low level of water in the blood --> triggers retention in kidneys --> kidneys produce more concentrated urine --> less water lost from body
what is the endocrine system
high concentration of sugar in the blood --> triggers secretion of insulin from pancreas -->
what is insulin
hormone that helps cells absorb sugar from the blood
what is negative feedback
response to a stimulus that keeps a variable close to a set value, it shuts off or turns on.
what are the steps of negative feedback
1. a change in the body is detected --> temp or gluc level 2. a message is sent to a gland or organ 3. a response is initiated --> body returns to normal state
is negative feedback involved in the maintenance of blood sugar
what hormone is released when there is a rise in blood sugar levels
insulin which comes from the pancreas
whats is positive feedback
when a change from normal state triggers a reaction that results in the change being amplified
what is an example of positive feedback
contraction :D
what does the kidney do
filter blood, remove nitrogenous waste, regulate salt and water balance, regulate sugar levels
what are receptor cells
receptor cells are a nerve cell that identifies change in the environment both inside and outside the body
a sensory receptor that responds to chemical stimuli (tongue)
a receptor that responds to light (eye)
responds to pressure or distortion (skin, inner ear)
responds to heat (skin)
what is the nervous system
senses the environment, controls action
what does the central nervous system consist of
the brain and spinal cord
what does the central nervous system respond to
muscles and glands
what does the peripheral nervous system consist of
the bundles of nerves that relay messages between the sense organ, central nervous system and the muscles and glands.
where is the peripheral nervous system located
it is spread out through the entire body
what are neurons
cells that transmit messages in the form of electrical signals from the central nervous system.
what is a cell body
where the nucleus is located
what are denrites
branches that receive messages
what are axon
a thread like structure that carries impulses to other neurons
what are myelin sheaths
a fatty later that sometimes insulates the axon and sometimes a dendrite.
general structure of a neuron
general structure of a neuron
knowt flashcard image
what so the sensory neuron do
transmit messages from the sensory organs to the central nervous system
what does the interneuron do
transmit messages from sensory neurons to motor neurons
what does the motor neuron do
transmit messages from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscle and glands to initiate a response.
what is the speed of messages in the endocrine system
slow, generally takes longer to have an effect
what is the speed of messages in the nervous system
fast, generally has a rapid effect
what is the length of response for the endocrine system
often long lasting
what is the length of response for the nervous system
usually short lived
what is the spread of effect in the endocrine system
the hormones travel to all parts of the body via the bloodstream. BUT only affect the receptors for that particular hormone
what is the spread of effect in the nervous system
very localised
how do messages travel through the body in the endocrine system
in the blood stream
how do messages travel through the body in the nervous system
along nerves
what type of messages in the endocrine system
hormone (chemical)
what type of messages in the nervous system
electrical impulse, neurotransmitter (chemical)
source gland --> adrenal target --> whole body main effects --> increases heart rate shuts down digestion makes energy available to muscles
source gland --> thyroid target --> whole body main effects --> makes cells consume more oxygen and nutrients increases body temperature
thyroid-stimulating hormone
source gland --> pituitary target --> thyroid main effects --> stimulates thyroid hormone production
follicle-stimulating hormone
source gland --> pituitary target --> gonads (ovaries or testicles) main effect --> stimulates egg production in females stimulates sperm production in males
what is the sugar the body relies on for energy
glucose levels in the blood need to be kept within a certain range for the body to maintain homeostasis
what happens if there is too much glucose in the body
insulin yay :D —> it is produced by the pancreases
what is it called if the body can't use insulin effectively
what is type 1 diabetes
the pancreas can’t produce enough insulin to control blood glucose levels
what do people with type 1 diabetes need
regular injections of insulin
what is type 2 diabetes
the target cells of insulin stop responding properly —> insulin resistance
what do people with type 2 diabetes need to do
change diet
what is artificial insemination
injection of sperm into the women’s uterus close to to time of ovulation
where else has artificial insemination been used for besides humans
It has also been used in agriculture in the production of prime farm animals, and in the breeding programs for endangered species
what is In-vitro fertilisation (IVF)
It is when the egg and semen are combined outside the mother's body in a dish.
what can be done if a man does not have enough sperm or a woman does not have enough eggs for a reproductive technology.
they can get it from a donor :D
what is the controversy surrounding reproductive technology
- some people believe it goes against nature - religion may play a part in determining someone's views - its very expensive - Donors do not get paid
what is a pathogen
an organism which causes a disease to its host
what are organisms which can only been seen with a microscope
are pathogens infectious diseases
what is a macro parasites
they are multicellular, do not typically multiply but instead produce transmission stages.
what is fungus
they are unicellular, they reproduce
what is protozoan
are single- celled organisms whose DNA is inside a membrane-bounded nucleus
what is bacterium
single celled organisms whose DNA is not contained inside a membrane-bounded nucleus
what is a virus
can not reproduce unless inside a host cell
what is a prion
are thought to be incorrectly folded proteins
can a disease disrupt the normal homeostasis of your body
what is a non-infectious disease
they are not caused by pathogens and can NOT be transmitted from one organism to another.
how can infectious diseases be spread?
sneezing, coughing, physical contact with an infected organism, contaminated objects, contaminated water supply or vectors
is the common cold an infectious or non-infectious disease
infectious disease
is cancer and infectious or non-infectious disease
non-infectious disease
what is the first line of defence also known as
the barrier defences
what does the first line of defence do
prevents pathogens from entering the body. it consists of both physical and chemical barriers
what are some physical barriers
skin, cilia, hair, urine, and mucous
what are some chemical barriers
saliva, tears, strong acid, and acidity in your skin
what is the second line of defence
it is NON SPECIFIC !!!
what is the thing which takes up and digest any pathogen which enters the body
white blood cells also known as phagocytes
what is a macrophage
large white blood cell which eats pathogens
what is the general responses for the second line of defence
fever, inflammation, and phagocytes
what is a fever
the increase of body temp (above 38) --> slows down and kills pathogens
what is inflammation
painful redness and swelling in the affected area --> more blood = more white blood cells
what is the two main roles of the third line of defence
- identify and destroy specific pathogens - build long-lasting immunity against the pathogen in case they infect the body again
all pathogens have the same structure
what is an antibody
a type of protein that can bind to a pathogen
what does it mean to be immune to a disease causes by a pathogen
- the immune system has formed a memory of the pathogen - the immune system can fight the pathogen more quickly and effectively
what does a vaccination do
- prevent the spread of a viral diseases and some bacterial disease - trains the body
what does a vaccine contain?
a weakened or killed version of the particular pathogen
what is an antibiotic
a way of treating some bacterial diseases once people have gotten them
do antibiotic stop the growth of, or kill bacteria
when were antibiotics first discovered
1928 by Alexander Fleming
good luck guys ily
<3 mwah