unit 4 ap hug

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55 Terms
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An area organized into a political unit & ruled by an established gov. that has control over internal & foreign affairs.
A large group of people who are united by common cultural characteristics - language, ethnicity - or by shared history.
nation state
A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular nation.
Stateless nation
A cultural group that has no independent political entity, although they often have a political organization.
Multinational state
State that contains 2+ cultural groups with traditions of self-determination & agree to coexist & recognize each other.
Multistate nation
A nation that has a state of its own but stretches across borders of other states.
Autonomus religion
A defined area within a state that has a high degree of self-government and freedom from its parent state.
The fragmentation of a state or region into smaller, often hostile, units along ethno-linquistic lines.
The power of a political unit/state to rule/govern over its own affairs.
The concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Independence movement
Attempt to gain political independence for a group that believes it should be its own state(may be violent or peaceful)
The transfer of political power from the central government to subnational levels of government.
A region that suffers instability because it is located between two other very different regions.
A geographic feature (land or sea) that can be used to block movement of people/goods.
A willingness by one person or a group of people to defend space they claim.
Relic Boundary
Boundaries that used to exist and can still be detected on the landscape.
Superimposed boundary
A boundary drawn by outside powers.
Subsequent boundary
A boundary drawn to accommodate religious, ethnic, linguistic, or economic differences.
Antecedent boundary
A boundary drawn before a large population was present.
Geometric boundary
A straight line drawn by people that does not follow any physical feature closely.
Consequent boundary
A boundary between opposing cultural, ethnic, political groups that was establed to settle disputes/end wars.
Defined boundary
A boundary established by a legal document such as a treaty that divides one entity from another.
Delimited boundary
A line drawn on a map to show the limits of a space.
Demarcated boundary
A boundary identified by physical objects placed on the landscape. Could be a sign/fence/wall.
Demilitarized zone
A zone within which military forces or operations/installations are prohibited.
Berlin Conference
In 1884-85 major empires from Europe met to establish claims on the continent of Africa.
Maritime boundary
Division of the water surface of the planet into maritime areas.
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
A systematic way to address water boundaries, created between 1973-82, signed by over 150 countries.
International waters
The areas of the sea that are not under the jurisdiction of any country.
Territorial sea
An area of sea - up to 12 nautical miles off shore - over which a sovereign state has jurisdiction.
Exclusive economic zone
Area of the sea in which a sovereign state has rights for exploration & use of marine resources (fishing, energy, etc.)
Voting districts
Defined districts with distinct boundaries where citizens (electorate) elect officials to represent their interests.
The redrawing of district boundaries so that each district has the same number of people.
The drawing of political districts by the party/group in power to extend or cement their advantage.
Unitary state
Governing authority is held primarily by the central government with very little power given to local governments.
Federal State
An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Ethnic separatism
A devolutionary force within a state - ethnic groups and minorities that may develop into independence movements
Ethnic cleansing
The forced removal of a minority ethnic group from a territory, involving violence and terror-inspiring means.
Organized violence aimed at government and civilian targets that is intended to create fear to further political aims
A movement to unite people who share a language or other cultural elements but are divided by a national boundary.
This occurs when multiple countries form an organization to collectively achieve greater benefits for all members.
The transition from autocratic (single person rule) to more representative forms of governance.
Trade agreements
Established rules about trade that all parties agree to follow.
Military alliances
Organizations of countries who agree to help each other militarily if attacked by another country.
Supranational organizations
Organizations formed with multiple countries to benefit all members. Orgs are centered on trade/military/problem-solving
United Nations
Founded in 1945 (following WWII) to take on issues facing humanity, such as peace and security.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Founded in 1949 to provide mutual defense of member states. Members include US, Canada, Western/Central Europe.
European Union
Founded in 1993 for the political & economic integration of member states. 27 members mostly in Western/Central Europe.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Founded in 1967 for the economic benefit of member states. Includes Cambodia, Indonesia, Singapore, Laos...
Arctic Council
Founded in 1996 to promote intergovernmental cooperation in the Arctic. Includes US, Canada, Russia, Finland, Sweden...
African Union
Founded in 2002 - an organization of African states that aims to encourage development and political stability.
Failed state
A state whose political or economic system has become so weak that the government is no longer in control.
Ethnic nationalist movement
An ethnocentric approach to various political issues intending to affirm a particular ethnic group.
Infrastructure development
An emphasis by governments on efficient transportation systems, intending to boost trade, communication, dependence, etc
Cultural cohesion
Capacity of different national/ethnic groups to make a mutual commitment to live together as citizens of the same state.