Science Unit 2 Cells

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42 Terms
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Endoplasmic reticulum
A network of sac-like structures and tubes in the cytoplasm of a cell.
Golgi body
a cell organelle that helps process and package proteins and lipid molecules, especially proteins destined to be exported from the cell.
Powerhouse of the cell
A sac-like organelle that stores water, food, and other materials.
A jellylike fluid inside the cell
Control center of the cell
Cell wall
A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
Cell membrane
Separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.
Responsible for protein synthesis
a plastid that contains chlorophyll (green pigment) and in which photosynthesis takes place
Allowing liquids or gases to pass through it.
Not permitting passage (especially of fluids)
Selectively permeable
Ability to differentiate between different types of molecules, only allowing some molecules through while blocking others.
The movement of solvent (water) through a semipermeable membrane from the side of lower solute concentration to the side of higher solute concentration. (Only solvent moves)
Movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. (Both solvent and solute moves)
A single celled organism
Made up of more than one cell
Microtubule based hair like organelles that extend from the surface of almost all cell types of the human body.
Whip like tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
A temporary growth on a cell that allows it to be mobile, almost like a little foot. (false foot)
Cellular respiration
The process by which food, in the form of sugar (glucose), is transformed into energy within cells.
Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
A group of cells that possess a similar structure and perform a specific function
A part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function
Organ systems
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
Epithelial tissue
A type of body tissue that forms the covering on all internal and external surfaces of your body, lines body cavities and hollow organs and is the major tissue in glands
Connective tissue
bind structures together, form a framework and support for organs and the body as a whole, store fat, transport substances, protect against disease, and help repair tissue damage.
Muscle tissue
A body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move.
Nerve tissue
A body tissue that carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body
Protective tissue
The tissues that are present in the outermost part of the plant (leaves, stem, roots, etc.) that are responsible for protecting the plant body.
Photosynthetic tissue
Plant tissue in leaves used to make food by photosynthesis using sunlight.
Transport tissue
Moves water and nutrients through the plant
Skeletal system
It supports the body, facilitates movement, protects internal organs, produces blood cells and stores, releases minerals and fat, and is the frame of the body.
Muscular system
It makes you move, breathe, makes your heart beat
Circulatory system
Made up of blood vessels that carries blood away or towards the heart. The system carries oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells, and removes products such as carbon dioxide
Respiratory system
the network of organs and tissues that help you breath. The system helps your body absorb oxygen from air so your organs can work. It also cleans waste gases, such as carbon dioxide, from your blood. Common problems include allergies, diseases or infections
Nervous system
your body's command center. It controls your movements, thoughts and automatic responses to the world around you. It also controls other body systems and processes, such as digestion, breathing and sexual development
Digestive system
breaks down food so nutrients can be absorbed by the blood and transported to all cells. It also disposes solid waste.
Excretory system
removes waste from the body. These wastes include, water, CO2, nitrogen, salts and heat.
Integumentary system
body system that consists of the skin, hair, nails, and exocrine glands. This system forms a barrier between the internal environment and the external environment. This system has many functions, including protection, regulation of body temperature, and sensory reception.
Endocrine system
The glands and organs that make hormones and release them directly into the blood so they can travel to tissues and organs all over the body.
Lymphatic System
The tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood cells that fight infections and other diseases.