Gen bio finals

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156 Terms
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Site of photosynthesis in plants
An organelle located in the leaf mesophyll
Process in plants that release water vapor through the openings in leaves
Process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts
Guard cells
What cells are responsible for opening and closing the stomata?
Guard cells
use osmotic pressure to open and close stomata
A light absorbing green pigment that plays an important role in photosynthesis
what tissue in plants carry water and minerals
A specialized tissue of vascular plants
A vascular tissue in charge of transport and distribution of the organic nutrients
Makes the transport of water and minerals possible
occupies the central part of the plants, which is the largest
In a mature flowering plant or tree, most of the cells that make up the xylem are specialized cells called
Lose their end walls so the xylem forms a continuous, hollow tube. this allows water to flow easily
become strengthened by a chemical called lignin.
Gives strength and support to the vessel.
Transport in the ___ is a physical process. It does not require energy
Responsible for transporting the products of photosynthesis throughout the plant body.
From the leaves of the plant they will deliver the product substance to the rest of body
occupies the marginal side of the plants
Transport of substances in phloem is called
consists of living cells
Sieve tubes, companion cells
cells that make up the phloem
sieve tubes
specialized for transport and have no nuclei.
sieve tubes
Has a perforated end so its cytoplasm connects one cell to the next
Companion cells
Transport of subtances in the phloem cells requires energy
companion cells
One or more ___ attached to each sieve tube provide this energy.
companion cells
A sieve tubes is completely dependent on it
Plant organization
The xylem and phloem are distributed differently in roots and stems, in the roots the xylem forms a central column, forming a solid support.
In the ____, the transport tissues of the xylem and phloem are grouped into vascular bundles
radial rays
In the trees, we can find ____ along their trunks
Radial rays
These tissues are common in woody plants for radial distribution of food
Environmental conditions
During the growth season affect xylem growth
Vascular cambium
produces xylem cells that can carry a lot of water cells that are large and thin walled when temperatures are cool and water is plentiful, as in the typical spring
Vascular cambium
produces narrow, thick-walled cells under hot, dry conditions, as in the typical summer
Radial system
functions primarily in the transport of carbohydrates from the inner bark to the wood
radial system
there are some food storage cells in this system as well
Ray cell
Interrupt the interconnections of the tracheids or fibres
Apoplast pathway
Movement through the cell walls and spaces between cells
Symplast pathway
Water and minerals pass through a continuum of cytoplasm between cells, called plasmodesma
Transmembrane Pathway
involves transport between cells across the membranes of vacuoles within cells
Stomatal transpiration
It is the evaporation of water through stomata. Stomata are specialized pores in the leaves
Cuticular Transpiration
The evaporation of water happens through the lenticels
Lenticular Transpiration
This type of transpiration is the loss of water from plants as vapor through the lenticels
Relative Humidity, Air Movement, Temperature, Light, Surface Area of Leaf, Water Availability, Opening and Closing of Stomata, Ascent of Sap
Factors Affecting Transpiration in Plants
Water potential
The one of the main factors that regulate the transport process in plants. This represents free energy or the potential to do work
Water potential
Furthermore, this is used to predict where water will move. Take note that water will move from a cell or solution with higher water potential to a cell or solution with lower water potential.
This happens if sunlight is absent. During nighttime the rate of transpiration is low, that’s why ions accumulate in the roots of plants, causing root pressure buildup. This will cause the water to enter the cells by osmosis.
Turgor pressure
The influx of water into the cell can produce this kind of pressure. This causes the plasma membrane to push against the cell wall, during the transport in phloem.
Pressure flow theory
This can demonstrate turgor pressure; it states that dissolved carbohydrates which flow from a source, are brought to a sink where these either stored or utilized
travels from mesophyll cells of the leaves to the companion and sieve cells through symplast
Exchange gases directly with the water in their surroundings through the cell membrane.
Sponges and Cnidarians
Also aquatic animals that exchange gases directly with body cells and the environment.
Have a heart that is two chambered. Gas exchange is made more efficient through the countercurrent flow
The heart is three chambered with two atria and one ventricle. In the ventricle, partial mixing of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood happens. From the ventricle, blood is pumped to reach the lungs and skin where gas exchange will take place.
cutaneous breathing
Under water, they utilize their skin for gas exchange, which is also referred to as
External respiration, Internal respiration
There are two types of gas exchange in the human body.
External respiration
the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the lungs
Internal respiration
is gas exchange between the cells and the blood.
Two openings in the ___ serve as the entrance for the passage of air into the body. In the nose, air is cleaned, moistened, and warmed
This is also known as the throat, is found at the back of the mouth. During inhalation, a flap of cartilage called epiglottis is in an upright position and air moves into the trachea or windpipe.
This is also called voice box or Adam’s apple, is more prominent in males than in females. Sounds are produced when air is forced past two vocal cords that stretch across the.
: This is most often called the windpipe , it is located in front of the esophagus. It is about 10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide and is lined with mucous membranes and cilia.
The trachea is divided into two hollow branches, called . Each bronchus is attached to the lungs.
These are large, spongy , and elastic sac like structures suspended from each side of the heart, inside the chest cavity.
air sacs
In the ______, oxygen diffuses through the capillaries and into the bloodstream.
nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
The air that we inhale is a mixture of gases which includes
Circulatory system
The system that contains the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
Circulatory system
This system moves the blood throughout the body.
Circulatory system
This system helps tissues and cells get enough oxygen and nutrients, and it also helps them get rid of waste materials.
Problems with your heart’s pumping action. Changes to your heart’s structure. Inefficient blood flow.
Cardiovascular diseases, Vascular diseases
Cardiovascular diseases
which affect your heart and/or blood vessels.
Vascular diseases
which affect your blood vessels.
Are weak spots in the walls of your arteries that can expand like a balloon.
As they continue to get bigger, they’re at risk for rupture (breaking open) or causing blood clots. Can occur in any artery (aortic aneurysms)
Fusiform, pseudoaneurysms, saccular, dissecting, ruptured
Types of aneurysms
Is an irregular or abnormal heartbeat. Prevent your heart from contracting and relaxing normally.
Atrial fibrillation is the most common type
supraventricular arrhythmias
Some begin in the upper chambers of the heart. These are called
ventricular arrhythmias
Others begin in the lower chambers of your heart These are called
Ventricular fibrillation
is a life threatening medical emergency because it can lead to sudden death.
Is the buildup of plaque in your arteries.
Over time, the _____ narrows your arteries and makes it harder for blood to flow through.
The _____ is also dangerous because it can rupture and trigger a blood clot
Carotid artery stenosis
plaque buildup in the arteries in your neck.
Coronary artery disease
plaque buildup in the arteries.
Peripheral artery disease
plaque buildup also in the arteries.
is made up of deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste
Blood pressure
is a number that shows how forcefully blood flows through your blood vessels.
High blood pressure throughout the arteries in your body.
Low blood pressure throughout your body.
Portal hypertension
High blood pressure in the vein that carries blood from your intestines to your liver
Pulmonary hypertension
High blood pressure in the arteries that carry blood from your heart to your lungs
Is a group of conditions that affect your heart muscle, leading to weakened heart squeeze. These conditions harm your heart’s ability to pump blood.
Dilated cardiomyopathy
your heart chambers get bigger
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Your heart muscle gets thicker
Peripartum cardiomyopathy
our heart weakens late in pregnancy or soon after delivery
Abnormalities in the anatomy of the heart. Refers to heart problems babies are born with. Is sometimes heritable
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Is a progressive disease. Happens when your heart can’t pump blood as well as it should.
congestive heart failure
Later stages of heart failure are called
Can affect any of your four heart valves. A diseased valve strains your heart. Over time, this can lead to complications like heart failure or sudden cardiac death.
Mitral valve regurgitation
your mitral valve is leaky , causing some blood to flow backward.
Aortic valve stenosis
your aortic valve is too narrow , limiting how much blood can flow through.
Aortic valve regurgitation
your aortic valve is leaky.
Too many fats in your blood can be dangerous.
We all need to have some ____ in our blood.
do important work in our bodies.
high cholesterol can raise your risk of many other medical conditions.
Familial hypercholesterolemia
high cholesterol that’s passed down within biological families. People with this condition have very high LDL (bad cholesterol) levels.
Is a life threatening emergency that needs immediate medical attention. It happens when blood flow to your brain gets interrupted
Ischemic stroke
a blood clot blocks an artery leading to your brain.
Hemorrhagic stroke
there’s bleeding in your brain (sometimes, from a ruptured blood vessel or head injury), which blocks brain cells from receiving blood.
Transient ischemic attack
a blood clot temporarily blocks blood flow to your brain, causing a “mini stroke.”
Is an inflammation of your blood vessels caused by an overactive immune system.
Can affect your veins, arteries or capillaries. This inflammation can narrow or block your blood vessel. It can also weaken your blood vessel and cause an aneurysm.
Are a group of conditions that affect your veins. It can completely block blood flow.
Chronic venous insufficiency
our leg veins struggle to pump blood back up to your heart. This causes blood to collect in your leg veins.
Deep vein thrombosis
blood clot forms in one of your deep veins. If the clot breaks free, it can travel to your lungs and cause a life threatening pulmonary embolism.
feedback mechanism
is a physiological regulation system in a living body that works to return the body to its normal internal state, or commonly known as homeostasis.
Positive feedback
occurs to increase the change or output: the result of a reaction is amplified to make it occur more quickly.
Negative feedback
occurs to reduce the change or output: the result of a reaction is reduced to bring the system back to a stable state.
Endocrine system
is made up of several organs called glands.
are chemicals that coordinate different functions in your body by carrying messages through your blood to your organs, skin, muscles and other tissues. These signals tell your body what to do and when to do it.
endocrine system
The ______ continuously monitors the amount of hormones in the blood.
Either made of amino acids (peptides) or lipids
- Ductless - Release their secretions or products directly into the blood stream - Thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands are the examples
- Release their secretions or products through the ducts - Mammary, tear and salivary glands are the examples
Control the growth and metamorphosis of insects and other arthropods
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops including birth or hatching
Exocrine gland secreting peptide 1 (ESP1)
is a sex pheromone that is released in male mouse tear fluids and enhances female sexual receptive behavior.
Neurosecretory cells
(found in the insect brain)
Secrete prothoracicotropic hormone
Activates prothoracic glands to secrete ecdysone
juvenile hormone
Stimulates endocrine gland to secrete a juvenile hormone
Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
- Secreted by adrenal medulla - Initiates response to stress - Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolic rate
- Secreted by adrenal cortex - Makes the body adapt to long term stress
- Secreted by adrenal cortex - Maintains the balance of sodium and and potassium ion excretion in cells
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, Stimulates the secretion of adrenal cortical hormones
Cortisol in humans
- Increases glucose in the bloodstream - Enhances brain's use of glucose - Increases the availability of substances that repair tissues
Corticosterone in other vertebrates
Has an important function in metabolism, stress, and adaptation.
Fight or Flight Response
- Increased blood pressure - Increased glucose in the blood stream - Increased heart and respiratory rate - Body is under stress to trigger lifesaving natural instinct - Minimizes some of the organs’ functions - Immune system, sex cell development, digestion, etc.
Secreted by pancreas. Stimulates fat, protein, glycogen synthesis. Lowers blood glucose level
Secreted by pancreas. Raises blood glucose levels. Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen
- Secreted by ovaries - Stimulates the development of female secondary sex traits
- Secreted by ovaries - Stimulates the development of mammary glands - Completes the preparation for pregnancy
- Secreted by testis - Stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics - Also stimulates rapid growth at puberty
- Secreted by pineal gland - Regulates biological rhythms
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland - Stimulates spermatogenesis - Stimulates the development of the ovarian follicles
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
- Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland - Stimulates the secretion of testosterone, for sperm production and for the development of the male secondary sex characteristics - Stimulates the production of estrogen and progesterone for ovulation and the formation of the corpus luteum in females
Growth Hormone (GH)
- Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland - Stimulates fat breakdown, muscle and bone growth - Also stimulates protein synthesis that results in overall body growth
Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH)
- Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland - Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine - Regulates metabolism in the body through “chemical homeostasis” - Body temperature, skin moisture, levels of ions, etc.
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
- Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland - Elevates calcium level in the blood by stimulating bone breakdown - Stimulates calcium re absorption in the kidneys and activates vitamin D
- Secreted by parathyroid glands - Raises the calcium level in the blood
- Secreted by the anterior pituitary gland - Stimulates the mammary gland to produce milk
- Secreted by posterior pituitary gland - Targets the uterus which brings uterine contractions during child birth - Regulates the mammary glands for milk ejection