ChAPTER 17 -- Part 3: Reunification and Renaissance in
The nephew of the Prime Minister has made use of share in his own way.
Even though your high ability has been rewarded with a commission, less favor I could take part in this triumphal progress.
General member of the rear most company, the day would live engraved Li is highly qualified both as a civil and a military official, and on my memory.
I have held office only as an officer of the guard, but I do not compare with other men in talent.
Having no appearance means being empty.
Being tranquil is not having been created.
One will not be mourned by birth or death.
Buddhism had a strong social, economic, and political force due to the combination of royal patronage and widespread conversion at both the elite and mass levels.
The Tang rulers were trying to promote educa tion in the Confucian classics.
They commissioned Buddhist paintings and statuary and sent emissaries to India.
She tried to make Buddhism a state religion.
Many Buddhist paint ings and sculptures were commissioned by the emperor.
The sculptures are large.
The steeply cast bronze of the two and three stories high is carved from stone, which is one of the most characteristic features of this style of construction.
The Tang ruler was 690-705 years old.
Huge statues of the Buddha were carved out of rocky cliffs in the 6th century c.e.
at sites such as Longmen near the Tang capital of Luoyang on the Yellow river and Yunkang far to the north.
The art at these centers was strongly influenced by that of central and west Asia, and before the age of Buddhist predominance, sculpture had not been highly developed in China.
The huge Buddhas of sites such as Longmen attest to the high level of skill the Chinese had attained in stone- and metalworking.
There were hundreds of thousands of Buddhist monks and nuns in China by the mid-9th century.
The envy of Confucian and Daoist rivals was aroused by the Anti-Buddhist Backlash Buddhist successes.
Even though the faith followed by most of the Chinese was very different from that originally preached by the Buddha or that practiced in India and southeast Asia, some notables attacked the religion as alien.
The monks tried to counter Buddhism's appeal to the mass by emphasizing their own magic.
The growing campaign of Confucian scholar administrators to convince the Tang rulers that the large Buddhist monastic establishment posed a fundamental economic challenge to the imperial order was the most damaging to the fortunes of Buddhism.
The Tang regime lost a lot of revenue because they didn't tax monastic lands and resources.
The state did not have the power to tax or conscript peasants who worked on monastic estates.
State fears of Buddhist wealth and power led to measures to limit the flow of land and resources to the monastic orders.
The Chinese emperor of Tang tions began an open persecution of Buddhism.
Thousands of monasteries and Buddhist shrines were destroyed and hundreds of thousands of monks and nuns were forced to abandon their monastic lives because of the persecution.
They and the slaves and peasants who worked their lands were subject to taxation in the 800s, and the monastery lands were parceled out to taxpaying landlords and peasant Buddhism.
Chinese Buddhism was weakened by this and other bouts of oppression.
The political influence and wealth that the Buddhist monastic orders had in the first centuries of Tang rule would never happen again.
The great age of Buddhist painting and cave sculptures gave way to art dominated by Confucian subjects and styles in the late Tang and the Song Dynastic era.
The Zen and pure land sects of Buddhism have millions of followers.
Confucianism was the central ideology of Chinese civilization from the 9th to the early 20th century.
Buddhism left a mark on the arts, the Chinese language, and Chinese thinking about things such as heaven, charity, and law, but it ceased to be a dominant influence.
The impact of Buddhism on the civilizations of mainland southeast Asia, Tibet, and parts of central Asia continued even after Tang-Song rule ended.
The Tang assault on the Buddhist monastic order was smaller than the general weakening of imperial control that had begun almost a century earlier.
After the Tang, the Confucian revival was controversial, but strong rule between 690 and 705 by the empress, who tried to establish a flourished under the new dynasty, and a second attempt to control the throne was made by a highborn woman who had a mar dynasty.
Backed by her powerful relatives and a group of prominent courtiers, she poisoned her husband and placed her own child on the throne.
The very capable officials he appointed to high positions pushed for political and economic reforms.
His interest in running the empire waned.
He devoted himself to patronizing the arts and enjoying the pleasures within the confines of the imperial city.
An Arab merchant visits the imperial apartments for the attention of the monarch.
They were one of the most famous and illstarred romances in Chinese history.
Powerful women at the courts of emperors and kings throughout Afro-Euroasia made a lot of interven tions.
The imperial gardens were where Xuanzong gave flute lessons.