The hege mony was extended over most of central Mexico.
Problems beset the state after the reign of Topiltzin.
Crop failure was caused by the dry weather.
The Chichimecas attacked the borders.
Weak rulers couldn't quel domestic uprisings.
In 1174, the last king of the state committed suicide.
By 300 b.c.e., the Mexican trading networks extended into southwestern North America.
Many North American groups used agriculture to increase the available food supply and allow more people to live in urban centers.
The Mississippian, Anasazi, and Hohokam are shown here.
The vegetation of North America did not change much from this time period.
The turquoise and other precious stones were exported in return for the balls.
Trade goods came with religious ideas.
The feathered serpent god was important to desert peoples.
Other groups built settlements in this area, including the Anasazi and the Yuma.
Mesa Verde, the largest Anasazi town, had over twenty-five hundred people living in houses built into and on cliff walls.
Mesa Verde was connected to other Anasazi towns by roads.
The decline in both the Hohokam and Anasazi cultures was caused by soil erosion.
Around 2000 b.c.e., the mound building was introduced at settlements along the Mississippi River.
The Hopewell was one of the most im portant mound-building cultures.
For priests, leaders, and other high-status individuals, some mounds were burial chambers.
The larger houses of important people had platforms.
Some of them were large mounds of earth shaped like animals or geometric figures, which may have served a ceremonial purpose.
To honor the gods, to remember the dead, and to make distinctions between leaders and common folk are some of the purposes of a mound building.
The canals included in the earthworks allowed trading networks to expand, bringing products from the Caribbean far into the interior.
The maize was carried by those trading networks due to the more intensive agriculture in the eastern wood lands of North America.
The largest mound of all the mounds has been found at Cahokia, Illinois, near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers.
An important began in the 1100s.
The mounds sippi River to the mountains.
The leaders' male and female were sacrificed in order to assist the leader in the afterlife, and the largest mound served as burial chambers.
The 1,254-foot-long mound in the form of a snake has its "head" at the highest point, suggesting an open mouth ready to swallow a huge egg formed by a heap of stones.
Archaeologists have deduced from the burial items that the mound culture was hierar chical and that the power was centralized.
The leader had long-distance trade and gift-giving ties.
The exchange of goods was seen as a way of showing respect and of establishing bonds among different groups.
Large towns were used as political and ceremonial centers.
They did not grow into large, politically unified city-states like Tikal and Teotihuacan did.
The Mississippian mound builders relied on agriculture to support their cultures, and by the time Cahokia was built, maize agriculture had spread to the Atlantic coast.
Along riverbanks and the coastline, fields of maize, beans, and squash surrounded large, permanent villages containing many houses, all surrounded by walls made of earth and timber.
The majority of people's food came from farming.
People played various bal games and chunkey, a game in which spears were thrown at a disk.
These games were often played in large arenas with many spectators who gambled on the outcome.
The Mississippian people have religious ideas.
Along with the visible world, the Mississippian cosmos included an Overworld and an Underworld filled with super natural beings; the three worlds were linked together by an axis usually portrayed as a tree or a striped pole.
The forces and beings of both spiritual worlds, which often took the form of falcons, serpents, panthers, or creatures that combined parts from various animals, were honored through ceremonies and rituals, and they offered supernatural power to the man.
Cahokia was the largest city in the north at one point.
The construction of an interior wooden fence around the city made spring floods worse and eventually destroyed much of the city.
The city was destroyed by an earthquake at the beginning of the 13th century.
The site's population dispersed due to the worsening climate of the 14th century that brought famine to Europe.
The fifteenth century brought increased warfare, as evidenced by the building of wals and defensive works around towns, and more migration.
The Iroquois League was formed in the early 16th century to reduce intergroup of the major societies of Mexico and Central America.
Both lier peoples' languages were adapted to create an even more powerful state.