Some people were affected more by the Great War than others.
The Allies and Central Powers were involved in fighting with the Japanese and Ottoman Turks.
The Chinese were more concerned with internal events and the threat from Japan than they were with the war in Europe.
The impact of the war was greater in British India and French India.
The British and French had to draft their subjects into the war.
An Indian or Vietnamese soldier who fought in France and came in contact with democratic and republican ideas was less likely to accept foreign rule when he returned home.
The British and the French had to make promises in order to get the support of the colonial peoples.
After the war, the colonial powers refused to let the genie go back into the bottle.
The hopes of people under imperial rule were raised by Wilson's war aims.
In January 1918 Wilson proposed his Fourteen Points, which included national self-determination for the peoples of Europe and the Ottoman Empire.
The interests of native populations should be given equal weight with the desires of European governments, according to Wilson in Point 5.
The appeal of this message was for educated Asians.
The Allies tried to increase their political and economic domination of their Asian and African colonies after the war.
President Wilson was not a revolutionary and the Western empire was still alive in 1918.
Wilson compromised on colonial questions at the Paris Peace Conference in order to achieve some of his European goals.
The League of Nations mandates over Germany's former colonies and the old Ottoman Empire were part of the compromise between Wilson and the Europeans at the Paris Peace Conference.
The developed nations' fulfillment of their international responsibility was overseen by the whose members came from European countries with colonies.
The League left the implementation of the new principle to the colonial powers.
Japan was the only Asian state to get mandates.
The League of Nations created a commission to make sure the developed nations fulfill their international responsibility.
Europe was determined to maintain its power and influence.
The system was seen as an expansion of the imperial order.
They struggled to build mass movements that could achieve freedom and independence.
Asian nationalists were encouraged by Soviet communism.
The Asian inhabitants of the new Soviet Union were equal to the Russians in their own development, as declared by Lenin after he seized power in 1917.
The Communists pledged to support revolutionary movements in colonial countries.
There were three reasons for the rise of nationalism in Asia.
The most effective means of organizing anti-imperialist resistance were provided by nationalism.
Nationalism called for fundamental changes and challenged old political and social practices.
In Turkey after the Ottoman Empire's collapse, and in Japan after the Meiji Restoration, the nationalist creed went hand in hand with the acceptance of modernization by the educated elites, who used modernization to contest the influence and power of conservative traditionalists.
Third, nationalism offered a vision of a free and prosperous future and an ideology to honor the sacrifice the struggle would require.
There was a dark side to nationalism.
They were the enemy.
The will to challenge European domination was generated by nationalist feelings.
In three different ways, Asian nationalism stimulated bitter conflicts and wars between peoples.
When the ideology of nationalism first developed in Europe in the early 1800s, Asian and African elites were often forced to create a national identity in colonies that Europeans had artificially created, or in multiethnic countries held together by authoritarian leaders but without national identities based on shared ethnicities.
Second, nationalism stimulated conflicts between peoples in large states, for example Chinese against Japanese.
Tensions between ethnic or religious groups can be heightened by nationalism.
Ethnic and religious rivalries were common in most countries.
The rulers of colonial powers and local authoritarian rulers used ethnic and religious differences to divide and conquer the peoples of their empires.
When the imperial rule ended, the different national, religious, or even ideological groups turned against each other in order to control or divide the state.
Nationalism's appeal in Asia was not limited to territories under European rule.
China and Japan were forced to accept humiliating limitations on their sovereignty by Europe and the United States.
The nationalist promise of genuine economic independence and true political equality with the West appealed as powerfully in old but weak states like China as in colonial territories like British India.
Southwest Asia was the location of the most blatant attempt to expand Western imperialism.
The Ottoman Empire was destroyed by the British and French in 1916.
Europeans wanted to replace Turks as the main rulers in the region.
Turkish, Arab, and Persian nationalists reacted violently.
The Europeans came into conflict with each other in Palestine as they struggled to win nationhood.
The Ottoman Turks were pushed out of the Balkans in 1914 and their Arab provinces were on the verge of revolt.
The Ottomans' defeat in the First World War was a result of that revolt.
When the Allies tried to implement their plans, including independence for the Armenia people, the leader of the rebellion was born.
The Ottoman Empire was subject to European pressure and failed to reform in the late 19th century.
Lowering international stature and domestic tyranny led idealistic exiles to engage in revolutionary activity and motivated army officers to seize power and save the Ottoman state.
The Young Turks succeeded in the 1908 revolution and were determined to hold on to the remnants of the multiethnic empire.
After being defeated in the Balkan war of 1912, the Young Turks redoubled their efforts in southwest Asia.
Syria, along with modern-day Lebanon, Syria, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and Jordan, were the most important of their possessions.
The Arabian peninsula was claimed by the Ottoman Turks.
For centuries the largely Arab populations of Syria and Iraq had been tied to their Ottoman rulers by their common faith in Islam.
Beneath the surface, ethnic and linguistic tensions exist between Turks and Arabs.
Some of the 100,000 to 200,000 survivors are shown in the photo.
They were discovered at AsSalt in northern Jordan after being driven into the Syrian Desert.
The British took the refugees to Jerusalem, and some of their descendants still live there.
The "Arab movement" was made a reality by Young Turk actions.
Young Turks promoted a narrow Turkish nationalism.
The Ottoman Empire was further centralized and the influence of Turkish language and culture was extended.
The slaughter of thousands of Christians by the Turkish government in 1909 preceded the slaughter of more than a million people by the Turkish government in the First World War.
Arab discontent grew.
The Turks aligned themselves with Germany and Austria-Hungary during World War I.
The Young Turks drew all of the Middle East into a European war.
The British encouraged the alliance with vague promises of an independent Arab kingdom.
After British victories on the Arab peninsula in 1917 and 1918, many Arab patriots expected a large, unified Arab state to rise from the dust of the Ottoman collapse.
Arab nationalists felt betrayed by Great Britain and its allies within two years.
The Ottoman Empire was divided by secret wartime treaties between Britain and France.
In 1916, Britain and France secretly agreed that France would get Lebanon, Syria, and much of southern Turkey, and Britain would get Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq.
The British promised Arab independence after the war, but the Sykes-Picot Agreement left Arab nationalists feeling cheated.
The 1916 secret agreement between Britain and France divided the Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq.
Britain's wartime commitment to a Jewish homeland in Palestine was a source of Arab frustration.
The idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine was supported by the British foreign secretary in 1917.
The establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish People is something the Government believes in, and will use their best efforts to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities.
British Cabinet members believed that the Balfour Declaration would help the British war effort by appealing to German, Austrian, and American Jews.
Others supported the idea of a Jewish homeland, but also believed that Jews in this homeland would be grateful to Britain and help maintain the canal.
11 percent of the predominantly Arab population in the Ottoman territory in 1914 was made up of Jews.
The "national home for the Jewish People" mentioned in the Declaration implied to the Arabs, and to the Jews as well, a state that would be incompatible with majority rule.
The British mandate in Palestine officially incorporated the Balfour Declaration and its commitment to a Jewish national home after Arab nationalists met in Damascus at the General Syrian Congress in 1919.
The Syrian National Congress proclaimed Syria independent in March 1920.
Iraq was declared an independent kingdom by a congress.
The Western reaction to events in Syria and Iraq was swift and decisive.
Damascus was taken by the French army in July 1920.
The French took over.
The British established effective control in Iraq after putting down an uprising.
Turkish rule in the Middle East appeared to have been replaced by Western imperialism.
The General Syrian Congress at Damascus agreed to divide up the Arab lands, but the British made conflicting promises to Arab and Jewish nationalists.
At the Paris Peace Conference, President Wilson insisted that the right of self-determination should be applied to the conquered Ottoman territories, even though the British and French refused to participate.
The commission canvassed political views throughout greater Syria, and its long report with many documents reflected public opinion in the region in 1919.
The General Syrian Congress from present-day Syria, Lebanon, Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and Jordan came together in Damascus in 1919 to present their view to the Americans.
The delegates talked about the possibility of French rule under a League of Nations mandate and the establishment of a Jewish national home.
We want complete political independence for Syria.
The Government of this Syrian country should be a democratic civil constitutional Monarchy that protects the rights of minorities, and that the King be the Emir Faisal, who carried on a glorious struggle in the cause of our liberation and merited our full confidence and entire reliance.
The Arabs in the Syrian area are not less gifted than other advanced races like the Serbians, Greeks, and Roumanians at the beginning of their independence, so we protest against the Covenant of the Covenant.
We will seek technical and economical assistance from the United States of America if it is not more than 20 years, in order to prevent our country from falling prey to colonization and believing that the American Nation is farthest from any thought of colonization and has no political ambition in our country.
If America doesn't accept our request for assistance, we will seek assistance from Great Britain, but only if it doesn't interfere with the independence and unity of our country and that the duration of assistance doesn't exceed that mentioned in the previous article.
We don't acknowledge any right claimed by the French Government in any part of our Syrian country and refuse to allow her to assist us or have a hand in our country under any circumstances.
We do not acknowledge the title of the Zionists, but they are a grave danger to our people from the national, economical, and the pretensions to create a Jewish commonwealth in the southern part of Syria, known as Palestine.
Our Jewish brethren will enjoy our common rights and responsibilities.
There should be no separation of the southern part of Syria, known as Palestine, and the littoral western zone from the Syrian country.
We want the unity of the country to be guaranteed against partition.
There should be no economical barriers between the two countries and we ask for complete independence for Mesopotamia.
The fundamental principles laid down by President Wilson in condemnation of secret treaties impel us to protest most emphatically against any treaty that would partition our Syrian country and against any private engagement aiming at the establishment of Zionism in the southern part of Syria.
President Wilson's noble principles strengthen our confidence that our desires from the depths of our hearts will be the decisive factor in determining our future, and that President Wilson and the free American people will be our supporters for the realization of our hopes.
The Peace Conference will realize that we would not have risen against the Turks, with whom we had participated in all civil, political, and representative privileges, but for their violation of our national rights, and so will grant us our desires in full.
We want to send a delegation to represent us at the Peace Conference to defend our rights.
After the end of the First World War, French and British troops entered Constantinople and occupied it for five years.
The Turks were "worn out" from the war and were waiting for a new system.
The Allies' new system proved harsher for the defeated Turks than for the Arabs who are free from Turkish rule.
Turkey was dismembered and reduced to a puppet state because of a treaty.
Great Britain and France occupied parts of Turkey.
There was a sizeable Greek minority in western Turkey, and Greek nationalists cherished the "Great Idea" of a modern Greek empire.
The Greek armies advanced into the interior after landing on the Turkish coast.
Turkey seemed finished.
"Father of the Turks" was the title of the man who imposed revolutionary changes aimed at modernizing and westernizing Turkish society and the new Turkish government.
Ataturk wore an elegant European dress while dancing with his adopted daughter at her high-society wedding, a vivid symbol for the Turkish people of his break with traditional Islamic teaching and custom.
Turkey revived to become an inspiration to the entire Middle East.
The father of modern Turkey was a military man who was sympathetic to the Young Turk movement.
He watched the sultan's cowardice and the Allies' aggression.
He began working to unify Turkish resistance in 1919.
The Greek invasion led to the attempted annexation of western Turkey.
The Turks refused to acknowledge the Allied dismemberment of their country.
The Greeks advanced to Ankara in the next year.
There was a great victory for the forces of Mustafa Kemal.
The Greeks and their British allies wanted peace.
Turkey lost only its former Arab provinces after 1923, when it was recognized as a truly independent Turkey.
The territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey was recognized by the 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war.
Turkey should secularize and be modernized according to Kemal.
His first moves were political.
Kemal was elected president after he called on the National Assembly to oust the sultan.
Kemal crushed the demands for independence of ethnic minorities within Turkey, but he abandoned the idea of winning back lost Arab territories.
He created a one-party system to work his will.
Religion and culture were Kemal's most radical changes.
Islamic religious authorities regulated intellectual and social activities for centuries.
Like Russia's Peter the Great, Mustafa Kemal used dictatorial measures rather than reason and democracy to reach his goal, but he was influenced by the example of western Europe.
Kemal decided to separate the church and state.
Secular law codes were inspired by European models.
Secular subjects like science, mathematics, and social sciences were taught in state schools.
Many entrenched patterns of behavior were struck down by Mustafa Kemal.
Women in Islamic society have the right to vote.
Civil law on a European model now governs marriage.
No man could have more than one wife at a time.
Men were forbidden to wear the tall red fez of the Ottoman era as headgear, and government employees were ordered to wear business suits and felt hats to erase the differences between Muslims and "infidel" Europeans.
The old Arabic script was replaced with a new Turkish alphabet that made it easier for the government to spread literacy after 1928.
The European model's surnames were introduced in 1935.
Ataturk and his supporters consolidated their revolution by his death.
Turks were encouraged to embrace business and science as a result of government-sponsored industrialization.
Poverty and religious discontent persisted in rural areas.
Europe was building a secular nation-state.
Strong-arm efforts to build a unified modern nation in Persia were less successful than in Turkey.
Persia was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 A group of merchants, religious leaders and intellectuals revolted in 1906.
The Majlis was established by the shah after he was forced to grant a constitution.
The shah of Iran established the national assembly in 1906.
The 1906 Persian revolution was doomed to failure because of European imperialism.
Britain and Russia divided the country into spheres of influence without consulting Iran.
The Russian sphere encompassed the entire northern half of Persia, while Britain's sphere ran along the Persian Gulf.
Russia intervenes constantly.
British armies rushed into the power vacuum when Russian power collapsed.
In 1919, Great Britain bribed corrupt Persians to sign a treaty that allowed the installation of British advisers in every government department.
The Majlis refused to approve the treaty because of the attempt to make Persia a British satellite.
In 1921 the British were brought to power by a military dictator named Reza Shah Pahlavi, who ruled until 1941.
To build a modern nation, to free Persia from foreign domination, and to rule with an iron fist were all goals that were inspired by Turkey's Mustafa Kemal.
The challenge was huge.
The country of Persia was not developed.
The rural population was poor and uneducated, and the Persian majority had sizable ethnic minorities with their own ambitions.
Iran's powerful religious leaders were against a more secular, less Islamic society.
The shah created a modern army, built railroads, and encouraged commerce to fulfill his vision of a strong Persia.
The Kurds in the north and Arab tribesmen on the Iraqi border were under his control.
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company was founded in 1909 to exploit the first great oil strike in the Middle East.
Shah was less successful than Ataturk.
The idea of re-creating Persian greatness on the basis of a secularized society attracted relatively few determined supporters because the European-educated elite in Persia was smaller than the comparable group in Turkey.
Many powerful religious leaders turned against Reza Shah.
Afghanistan was nominally independent in the 19th century, but the British imposed political restrictions and interfered in the country's affairs.
Amanullah Khan won independence for India in 1919 after declaring war on the British government.
The country was thrown into the twentieth century by Amanullah's revolutionary modernizing reforms.
He established secular schools for both boys and girls and adult education classes for the mostly uneducated population.
He abolished slavery, created the country's first constitution in 1923, restructured the economy, and established a secular court system.
The result was a civil war and retreat from reform.
Islam was both a religion and a law.
Afghanistan won political independence from the West but not a modern society because of a primitive patriotism.
After 1920, French and British mandates forced Arab nationalists to seek independence.
Western taxpayers aided the Arab nationalists.
The mandates remained European satellites in international and economic affairs, but Arabs won considerable control over local affairs in the mandated states.
In Iraq, the British chose a man who had been deposed in Syria.
British advisers were given broad behind-the-scenes control.
The West has a stranglehold on the Iraqi economy because of Iraq's oil fields.
Faisal gained the people's support and encouraged moderate reforms despite the severe limitations imposed on him.
He secured Iraqi independence at the cost of a long-term military alliance with Great Britain.
Egypt had been occupied by Great Britain since 1884 and had been a British protectorate since 1914.
After the Great War, Great Britain declared Egypt independent but continued to occupy the country and control its politics.
In 1936, the British agreed to restrict their troops to their bases.
The French had to deal with their mandated Middle East territories.
Lebanon became part of the French mandate of Syria after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
They played off ethnic and religious minorities against each other and practiced a policy of divide and rule.
Lebanon became a separate republic in the 19th century, but remained under the control of the French.
In 1936, Arab nationalists in Syria won promises of independence in return for a friendship treaty with France.
The Arab states gradually freed themselves from Western political mandates but not from Western military threats.
After 1918, large Arab landowners and urban merchants increased their wealth and political power.
Western control of the newly discovered Arab oil fields proved that economic independence and genuine freedom had not yet been achieved.
Relations between the Arabs and the West deteriorated in the interwar years because of the tense situation in Palestine.
The British tried to compromise with both sides.
Jewish settlers were the focus of Arab nationalist anger.
The main issue was Jewish migration from Europe to Palestine.
Zionism was formed in Europe when a Jewish state could guarantee Jews dignity and security.
The situation changed after 1921.
The United States limited immigration from eastern Europe due to war and revolution.
Despite Arab protests, the British began honoring the Declaration.
After Adolf Hitler became German chancellor in 1933, Jewish immigration to Palestine from turbulent Europe grew rapidly.
Palestine's Jewish population had increased fivefold since 1914 and accounted for 30 percent of all inhabitants by 1939.
Difficulties faced by Jewish settlers in Palestine.
Many of the land purchased by the Jewish National Fund was productive, but many of the sellers were wealthy Arab landlords who didn't care for their tenants.
Arabs burned with a sense of injustice when the Jewish settlers replaced them.
Most Jewish immigrants came from urban areas and preferred to live in existing towns where they could compete with the Arabs.
The land issue made Arab protest into hatred.
Cotton and fruits such as grapes, oranges, and apples were packed and shipped around the world from agricultural settlements such as this one in Israel's northern Galilee.
Most of the food eaten by the members was produced by them.
The children show that all did their share of work on the kibbutz.
Donations became more standardized after the founding of the Jewish National Fund in 1901, but the collection boxes for the Zionist cause are from 1884.
In 1904, the first Blue Box appeared, with the suggestion that a box be placed in every Jewish home around the world and contributed to as often as possible.
Blue Box donations fund projects such as planting forests, establishing parks, and building roads in the Israeli state.
The British tried to slow Jewish immigration.
Between 1936 and 1939 the three communities were engaged in a civil war, and neither Jews nor Arabs were satisfied with this effort.
On the eve of the Second World War, the British proposed an independent Palestine with a limited Jewish population.
Zionism was in danger of losing its dream of an independent Jewish state.