Chapter 142 -- Part 2: Energy Flow and Primary Production
Global warming has already had an impact in the far north, which includes the tundra and forests.
As snow and ice melt, they reveal darker and more absorbent surfaces.
Earth is warmed even more because more radiation is absorbed.
The smallest area of sea ice on record was covered in the summer of 2007.
Animals such as polar bears, seals, and seabirds are at risk because of the decrease in habitat.
The likelihood of fires increases with higher temperatures.
More coastal and inland flooding, flash floods, and erosion can be caused by melting polar ice.
Reducing CO 2 emissions by industrialized nations is the only solution to global warming.
CO 2 is absorbed by forests as they grow.
Carbon is stored in wood, leaves, and soil.
The CO 2 is released when the forest is cut down.
Paying countries not to cut down their forests would be a solution to the problem.
This would slow global warming.
The world's population could be affected by global warming.
The level of the seas would be raised due to the melting of the polar ice caps.
Major coastal cities in the United States, including New York, Los Angeles, and Miami, would be under water.
The Great Barrier Reef in Australia is under increased stress due to global warming.
Coral can't build their skeletons because of this stress.
Oysters and sea urchins are suffering because of increased acidification of the oceans due to an increase in CO 2 dissolved in the oceans.
Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is dissolved in the oceans by combining with H 2 O.
The oceans are becoming more acidic because of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.
Many marine organisms, including reef-building corals and animals that build shells, need this compound.
Coral reefs provide shoreline protection and support a great diversity of commercial fish species, so their destruction would be a great loss.
Many food chains that include shell-building animals are negatively affected.
The formation of a hole in the protective ozone layer has been caused by the accumulated air of chlorofluorocarbons.
The incidences of skin cancer worldwide have increased due to the increase in UV light reaching Earth.
The introduction of a new species can threaten native wildlife.
Nonnative species can grow, reproduce, and spread without limits.
Invasive species can kill native species.
Invasive species don't have to come from another country.
Lake trout are native to the Great Lakes.
They compete with native cutthroat trout for resources and habitat in Wyoming.
Humans are the main spreaders of invasive species.
Ships carry aquatic organisms.
In crates around the world, insects are carried in wood.
People who are unaware of the consequences release animals they don't want in the wild.
The problem of pythons in the Everglades has become frightening.
They grow as long as 19 feet and hunted native rabbits that were close to extinction.
Billions of dollars are spent each year on removal and/or rehabilitation of invasive species.
The African honeybee is a very aggressive honeybee that was brought to Brazil in 1956 to breed a honeybee that would produce more honey in the tropics than the Italian honeybee.
The African honeybees have been spreading throughout the Americas.
Ten people were killed by bees in the United States by the year 2000.
The zebra mussel, a fingernail-sized mollusk native to Asia, was discovered in a lake near Detroit in 1988.
Scientists theorize that a ship accidentally carried the mussel from Europe to the Great Lakes.
Without a natural predator, the population exploded.
They were discovered when they were found to have blocked the water intake pipes.
The zebra mussel has caused millions of dollars of damage.
Several native species with extinction are threatened by the influx of the zebra mussel.
A new niche can be exploited by an introduced species.
It can hurt native species.
Scientists have developed pesticides that kill organisms that we don't like.
There are pesticides that kill mice and rats.
The pesticides save lives by increasing food production and by killing animals that carry and cause diseases like bubonic plague and Malaria.
Pesticide exposure can cause cancer in humans.
The development of resistant strains of pests is ensured by spraying with pesticides.
The pests are stronger now.
More people will be exposed to toxic chemicals because we have to spray more and more.
Biological control is an alternative to spraying pesticides.
Change the crop planted in a field.
You must be careful that you don't disrupt a delicate ecological balance by introducing an alien species.
Male insect pests can be destroyed by exposing them to radiation and then releasing them into the environment to mate unsuccessfully with females.
The chapter gave information about Big ideas: EVO, ENE, IST, and SYI.
Although there are no complicated chemical equations or pathways in this chapter, you must connect some of the concepts from earlier chapters, such as photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and evolution.
The study of the interactions of organisms and populations with each other and with their physical environment is called ecology.
Populations have a number of properties, including size, density, dispersion, and survivorship curves.
A population is a group of people who live in the same area and can interact with each other.
The growth of a population can be limited by two factors.
Competition for food, the build up of waste, and disease are density dependent factors.
Density-independent factors include earthquakes, storms, naturally occurring fires and floods.
If there are few or no limiting factors, a population will grow and exceed its carrying capacity.
The population will either decrease or die as a result.
The organisms that live in one area make up a community.
They are characterized by their density and diversity.
The most successful communities have the greatest diversity and are not too dense.
In a changing environment, a diverse community has a better chance of survival.
This idea is related to the concepts of evolution and natural selection.
There are five categories of interactions within a community.
All living things rely on free energy.
Organisms must exchange matter with the environment.
When you talk about the flow of energy in a food chain, remember that producers capture light energy and convert it into food through the process of photosynthesis.
Only 10% of the energy in a food chain is converted into organic matter.
Animals along the way lose the rest to heat and cellular respiration.
The higher the trophic levels, the more toxins enter at the bottom of the food chain.
The phenomenon is called biological magnification.
This refers to the ecology.
Humans threaten Earth in many ways.
Our population is growing fast.
We waste natural resources, destroy animal habitats, and pollute the air and water.
Acid rain and acidification of the oceans are two examples of how humans negatively impact our world.
Do you have remedies for these problems?
The Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan was flooded in 2011. tons of radioactive materials were released into the environment because of the flooding.
Most sea life in the Pacific Ocean survived the initial exposure to massive amounts of radiation, but scientists are unsure about what will happen in the future.
The climograph shows the mean temperature and precipitation in the United States for the past 50 years.
Predict the appearance of the climograph if carbon dioxide levels continue to rise and the United States becomes hotter and dryer over the next 50 years.
There is a dry, cold grassland in Siberia.
There are many species that are not found anywhere else in the world that are found in a biodiversity hotspot.
Only 2% of Earth's total landmass is occupied by bird species.
Habitat destruction caused by ongoing human activities is one of the causes of the hotspots.
The deer and elk populations in the park have been reduced by wolves.
This dynamic is an example of level ecology.
The graph shown below is an idealized survivorship graph.
K-strategists are the classification of some animal species.
They reproduce more than once, but have few young at one time.
They are slow to mature and engage in intensive parenting.
r-strategists have many small young at one time and engage in little or no parenting.
An example of an r-strategist is an insect.
The African savanna is a tropical grassland with warm to hot temperatures year-round.
The savanna has grasses, bushes, and trees.
There is a diverse community of organisms.
The leaves and grasses are plentiful during the rainy season.
In the dry season, rivers and streams become limited or disappear completely, and fierce competition among the wildlife results.
An animal can die of disease if it is weakened.
During the dry season, forest fires become more frequent.
They can destroy food.
Life on the African savanna is regulated by both density- dependent and density-independent factors.
Dutch elm disease is caused by a fungus.
The elm bark beetle is a native to Asia.
The beetle was introduced into Ohio in the 1930s.
native elms have been killed at a rapid pace in Australia and New Zealand by the beetles and the fungus.
elm trees provided shade on the streets.
elm trees can only be found in the United States, Europe, and the United Kingdom.
Consider two different environments.
A stream-fed environment has a constant water supply and stable temperatures.
Many large, well-established populations can be supported by this environment.
The desert floods and dries out at unpredictable times.
Animals from two different species use the same source of nutrition.
The Japanese seastar is found on the coast of Japan, Korea, and China.
A large seastar can be as wide as 20 inches.
The Japanese seastar has spread throughout Southeast Asia and the United States because it has no natural predator.
It feeds on native populations when it invades a new area.
Eutrophication is a phenomenon found in freshwater lakes and scientists began to learn about it in the 1970s.
The process begins when the surrounding farms and lawns add pollutants to the lakes.
The growth of primary producers is promoted by these added nutrients.
Light can't penetrate the water because the algae is so thick.
Predict what will happen if the lakes are polluted.
The fish will die because of the large amount of oxygen in the water.
The fish will get more oxygen.
The death of fish and other aquatic life will be caused by this oxygen deficiency.
The graph below shows population changes over time.
The graph shows the change in population for Japan from 1950 to 2016
If you want to answer questions 27-29, read this paragraph and then do so.
The watermilfoil was accidentally introduced into North America.
It spread into inland lakes by boats and water birds.
Between the 1950s and 1980s it reached western states.
It can form thick, underwater strands of tangled stems and mats of vegetation at the water's surface.
The plant can affect water recreation in shallow areas.
Important native water plants can be crowd out by the plant's floating canopy.
The plant's ability to reproduce through stem and runners is a key factor in its success.
A colony can be formed by a single segment of stem and leaves.
The plant can spread from one lake to another.
Thousands of new stem fragments and new plants are created by the mechanical clearing of aquatic plants.
A midwestern town decided to treat their watermilfoil-infested shallow lake with a chemical that would target watermilfoil and leave any native plants unaffected.
The watermilfoil had grown so dense that people couldn't swim or boat in the lake.
The treatment worked well.
The watermilfoil fell to the bottom of the lake after one week.
Choice D isn't correct because the danger that results from a food web most affects the highest trophic levels, not the lowest levels.
It's true that the lowest trophic level has the greatest biomass, and it's also true that radioactiveContamination to that level is horrible.
The initial radiationContamination of the lowest trophic level is a tiny fraction of the amount of radiation that works its way through the food chain from that level to the highest level.
The other choices don't make sense.
The circular shape is larger than the original and includes cooler temperatures.
Choices B and D show a circular shape moving to the right, which indicates greater precipitation.
It makes sense to look for an answer that includes both precipitation and temperature since the question described the steppes as "dry, cold grassland".
The amount of sunlight and the human population size are not defining characteristics of the biomes.
The variation in seasons, choice C, is an indirect result of latitude and altitude, but it is not a defining characteristic of biomes.
Choice D is incorrect because altitude is only one of several factors that determine the climate, and altitude and the water supply are not defining characteristics of biomes.
choice B is incorrect because there are no biodiversity hotspots in Europe.
Climate change and harmful human activities pose a constant threat to the species in the biodiversity hotspots.
The species in the hotspots are not common.
The answer must be choice B since the question focuses on wolves, deer, and elk.
All living and abiotic factors are involved in the ecosystems.
Choice C is incorrect because the question focuses on a community, not just a population.
The question does not solely focus on individuals, but on a community.
The taiga is located south of the tundra.
The tropical rainforest is closest to the equator and the temperate deciduous forest is south of the taiga.
The curve is flat in the beginning and then drops as you get older.
The highest mortality occurs early in life due to a lack of protective parenting, which is characteristic of external fertilization.
The initial flat line represents a low death rate among the young as a result of intensive parenting and the quick drop off represents death during old age.
R-strategists and K-strategists have their own characteristic survivorship curves that do not vary, so choice B is incorrect.
There is one line that represents the survivorship curve of an r-strategist.
The curve dips steeply initially.
Density-independent factors do not have to do with population density and include flooding, precipitation, and wind.
Losing a single species can destroy an entire system.
Choices A and D do not describe the most significant danger caused by an Invasive species.
The stem of the question doesn't give any information about the fungus spreading to humans.
Stable environments are favored by K-strategists since organisms are not being killed off by unfavorable conditions.
Competition for limited resources is minimized by this.
There is no way to know if the invader will eat the native nuisance plants and animals.
Choice B is incorrect because the seastar will not be a food source.
The invading species may kill off some native species and reduce the number of native populations.
Chemicals and oils that run into the lake foster the growth of algae.
The light is blocked and the light cannot be seen at the lower depths.
Thebacteria use up the oxygen in the water.
The situation can get so bad that it kills fish and other living things in the water.
The distribution of the population is shown by age and percentage.
The population of young people approaching reproductive age is getting larger and there are very few elderly people.
A large number of people in the future will have children if there is no law limiting the number of children a couple can have.
There is a large number of children who have yet to reach procreation age, which will lead to a larger population in the future.
Choice B has an even age distribution.
The population size will not change in the near future.
A population with a fairly even distribution is shown in Choice C, except for people in their 30s and 40s.
The group may have children in the future.
Choice D shows a large group of people in their 50s who did not have children.
There is a large group of people in their 30s who have not yet had a child.
The population will get smaller as shown in the graph.
Plants need nitrogen and phosphorus to grow.
Carbon and hydrogen are not harmful.
If the environment changes, the population has less chance of survival.
There can't be evolution without diversity.
There will be a lot of deadbacteria in the lake once it is killed.
The fish population is threatened by decomposition which uses up oxygen.
This change is brought about by human intervention.